《汽车涂装》| 第14章 Outlook展望

原标题:《汽车涂装》| 第14章 Outlook展望

第14章 Outlook展望



翻译:樊庆春 教授 武汉工程大学


Status and Public Awareness of the Automotive Coating Process


The performance of an automotive coating system has reached a level that satisfies most customers around the world. Compared to 30 years ago, the problem of corrosion is almost nonexistent, and durability and appearance of the top coats are acceptable for the lifetime of a car. With worldwide introduction of the two-layer top coats, color, gloss, and chip resistance stay excellent during the first 7 – 10 years. Almost any color and color effect is available, and technology is able to keep pace with changing fashion trends. This performance, generated over the last 20 years, presents a positive image of automotive coatings. Furthermore, the increasing trend of outsourcing of parts like bumpers, mirrors, fenders, grills, hoods, and roofs stresses the fact that color match problems of all assembled parts are also being overcome.


The technological leaps in the application processes involving abatement tech- nology, the use of robots, the emergence of waterborne and powder paints, and a wide range of colors support the high-tech image of this industry. In other words, nobody will accept Henry Ford’s words: ‘Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants, as long as it is black!’ The color of the car today is strongly connected with the expression of individuality of the customer and has a relatively low cost potential for mass customization. The environmental impact of an automotive paint shop has been reduced significantly over recent years. The market penetration of waterborne coatings as base coat or primer surfacer, and powder as primer surfacer and clear coat will sustain this trend on a worldwide basis. Recently, Japan has started to switch over to waterborne technology.

涂料应用工艺的技术飞跃如减排技术、机器人涂装、水性和粉末涂料的发展、色彩多样化等进一步凸显了涂料工业的高技术形象。换句话说,没有人接受Henry Ford的断言:“任何客户都可以将汽车涂成他期望的任何颜色,只要它是黑色!”如今汽车的色彩与客户的个性化表达紧密相联,并且具有大量客制化的相对低成本潜力。近几年来,汽车涂装车间的环境影响已经明显减少,水性涂料作为底漆或中涂漆,粉末涂料作为中涂或者罩光清漆逐步市场化将在世界范围内维持这种趋势,最近,日本业已开始采用水性技术。

According to a study of the Federation of German Paint Manufacturers (VdL), the image of automotive coatings ranks first among all coating segments, on the basis of customer awareness and acceptance in Germany [1]. In this respect, it ranks superior to the general paints industry, which does not have an image of creativity, innovation, high-tech finishes, and environmental compliance.

按照德国油漆制造商联合会的一项调查(VdL),根据德国消费者的认可和接受程度,汽车涂料在所有的涂料品种中形象排名首位,在德国这基于顾客对它的认知和接受[ 1 ]。在这方面,它优于通用涂料工业,这些通用涂料工业没有给人们留下创造和创新的形象,也没有使用高新技术涂装,甚至不符合环保要求。

Costs of a paint shop in terms of investment and running costs have been the main focus for many years, but it is very difficult to monitor improvements owing to the overlapping and increasing regulatory demands of environmental and safety issues over the last 30 years. Nevertheless, with paint shops becoming more and more standardized, the workforce has been drastically reduced. Pretreatment and electrodeposition processes run automatically, robots have taken over almost all the application and other handling requirements in the spray booth, and repair work has become less frequent owing to better first time capabilities of more than 90% in a well-maintained paint shop.


The total cost of car painting in the 1970s was ¤ 500 – 800 per unit, including all running costs as well as depreciation. Today, with improved quality and less environmental impact, the total cost is estimated at a level of ¤ 300 – 400 per unit. Further improvements in the traditional paint shops are expected with reduction in energy and investment costs. Both can be achieved by wet-on-wet-on-wet processes, where the primer surfacer, the base coat, and the clear coat are baked together [22]. Again, low bake coatings are considered and tested for inline coating processes, including all kinds of plastic parts [3]. The success is heavily dependent on the achievable first time capabilities and the performance level of the car appearance.

上世纪70年代,每辆汽车涂装的总成本是500–800美元,其中包括所有的运行成本和折旧,随着质量的提升和环境影响的降低,现阶段每辆车涂装总成本估计在300–400美元。传统涂装车间有望通过底涂、中涂、面漆同步烘烤固化的湿碰湿涂装工进一步降低能源消耗与投资[22 ]。此外,低温烘烤固化涂料也正在进行测试以在各种在线涂装过程中应用,包括各种塑料部件,能否取得成功很大程度上取决于一次涂装成功率和车辆表面的性能水平。

The introduction of waterborne and powder technology to maximize the total potential of environmental compliant paints (see Figure 1.8) is expected to continue. In Europe, waterborne primer surfacer and waterborne base coats have reached a market penetration of 50 and 80% respectively. In the clear coat segment, high solids, powder, and waterborne technology will continue to coexist. Ecoefficiency evaluations (life cycle analysis) have gained more and more importance in the decision processes, and technological and performance topics are no longer the key factors. [4].

水性涂料与粉末涂料将会机会发展,进一步发挥环境友好涂料的潜力(参见图1.8),在欧洲,水性中涂、水性底漆分别占据了50%和80%的市场份额。在面漆领域,高固体份涂料、粉末涂料和水性涂料将继续三足鼎立。在决策过程中经济效率评估(基于生命周期分析)已经受到了越来越多的重视,技术和性能的不再是关键因素[ 4 ]。

In North America, powder primer surfacer is used at Daimler and GM, whereas waterborne primer surfacer is rarely used. Chrysler and the European, Japanese, and Korean transplants use more of waterborne base coats, whereas GM and Ford mainly use the regionally specific high solid paints. Among the Asian manufacturers, the Japanese, Koreans, and Chinese have started to change over to waterborne base coat technology after 30 years of ‘experience’ in Europe and North America.



Regulatory Trends


Three main legislatory trends will have an impact on the automotive and auto- motive coatings industries in Europe. The first is the European Unions’ Directive2000/53/EG, which requires an 85% level of reuse of cars with 80% recycling in2006, and 95% and 85% levels respectively, by 2015. This has to be seen together with increasing considerations and model development of life cycle analysis of products like paints (see chapter 14.1). The second is the introduction of manda- tory risk assessments of each chemical in the European industry, the so-called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) process [5]. Finally, both the Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) deal with antioxidants, preservatives, and similar compounds, which became important for the paint industry owing to the significant increase of waterborne coatings and reduced solvents in them [6]. Together with the ban on heavy metals, this makes the waterborne coatings prone to microbiological attack.

三个主要立法趋势将对欧洲汽车和汽车涂料工业产生影响。首先是欧盟环保指令要求在2006年 回收汽车重新使用率达到85%,回收利用率达到80%级,这个数据2015年要达到95%和85%级。需要进一步使用寿命周期分析模型提升涂料水平(见14.1章)。其次是欧洲工业体系中化学品的强制风险评估,亦即化学品注册、评估、许可和限制法规 (REACH法规)[ 5 ]。此外,欧盟生物杀灭剂法规与美国环保署对抗氧化剂、防腐剂和类似化合物亦提出限制。由于水性涂料的快速发展和其中溶剂的减少,抗氧化剂、防腐剂的作用极为重要,由于其受到限制,另外还有重金属禁令,这都使得水性涂料容易受到微生物侵染。

The EU directive for recycling cars at the end of their lifetime has an impact on the painting process in terms of toxic substances. It is very understandable and almost mandatory for the required level of car recyclability that toxic materials have to be banned. The focus is on lead, cadmium, mercury, and chromium(VI) compounds. These compounds have to be avoided in coatings, where ever technically possible. These chemicals could be found in paints used as pigments for top coats and electrodeposition coatings. Since the beginning of 2005, they are being replaced in the respective formulations (see Chapters 4 and 7). This also holds for the pretreatment processes, in which chromium(VI) played a role as a passivation agent during the 1980s and 1990s. This has either been abandoned or replaced by less toxic compounds, almost completely [7]. The real world of recycling starting around 2007 will probably encounter other problems and may cause other replacement necessities, which are not foreseeable today. As already mentioned, the European government replaced the European Inventory of Existing commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) list by a legislation that makes the registration of chemicals mandatory, in Europe. All chemicals need to undergo a risk assessment in the direction of their intended use. This seems to be a costly measure for both the manufacturer and the user, and may lead to the withdrawal of some low volume chemicals [5]. Paint companies will then have to reformulate their products while maintaining performance.

由于涂装过程中使用毒害物质,欧盟关于回收达到使用年限汽车的指令对车辆涂装工艺带来了很大影响,为了达到要求的回收率,必须强制禁止使用有毒物,这已形成共识。重点是铅、镉、汞和六价铬化合物,只要技术可行就应该避免使用这些物质,在电泳涂料和面漆以及颜料中常见这些物质。自2005年初以来,人们正在配方中进行相应的替代(见第4章和第7章),预处理过程也在进行类似替代工作,20世纪80年代和90年代铬(VI)在预处理过程中作为钝化剂使用,或者禁用或者使用被低毒物替代 [7]。从2007左右开始的回收市场可能会遇到其他问题,也可能会使用今天不能预见的一些必须的替代品。正如已经提及到的,欧洲政府以法律条款取代现有欧洲化学品管理局商用化学物质欧洲库存目录,通过立法对化学品进行强制登记。在欧洲,所有化学品需要针对其应用领域进行风险评估,无论制造商还是用户都难以承受相应费用,可能导致撤回一些低市场容量化学品。涂料企业必须在在保持性能不变的同时对涂料重新进行配方设计。

The Biocidal Products Directive may have a similar effect on the use of preserva- tives. All new biocidal products, both active substances and preparations, will need formal approval for marketing. Existing biocides will be reviewed retrospectively during a 10-year transitional period [8]. It will become difficult to introduce new products in the market and costs will be higher for those that enter the market.


The actual legal limits of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in Europe and the United States [9] will follow the state-of-the-art application development. On the basis of emission numbers in g VOC m−2 coated car, the best available technology today yields numbers in the range 10 – 35 g m−2 . All paint shops have to chart out strategies to achieve this range by 2012. The constantly increasing knowledge of health and environmental impact of substances will further influence the exposure limits of toxic products mainly in organic solvents, resins, and additives.

在欧洲和美国挥发性有机化合物(VOC)的实际法律限制将随着最先进的应用进展而发展。在涂装车量VOC排放数据的基础上,现今最佳可行的技术数据在10—35 g m-2范围。所有涂装车间必须制定战略在2012年前达到这个目标。不断增加的物质对健康和环境影响的认知会进一步影响主要存在于有机溶剂、树脂与添加剂中的有毒物质的曝露限度。

Emission into the air is strongly in focus, but waste and water are also important outflows of car painting processes. Zero waste processes and closed loops for water are also targets to be achieved. Under these considerations, the spray processes are not deemed satisfactory.


Future legislation is likely to stress on fuel consumption of cars to protect the world’s climate. This will also have an impact on the coatings process and will boost the integrated processes together with lower film builds, without detrimental effects to the coating performance.


Future legislation is likely to stress on fuel consumption of cars to protect the world’s climate. This will also have an impact on the coatings process and will boost the integrated processes together with lower film builds, without detrimental effects to the coating performance.




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