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小学英语“冠词”语法讲解,快快收藏(附练习)

原标题:小学英语“冠词”语法讲解,快快收藏(附练习)

  1

  冠词概述

  冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。

  冠词分为不定冠词和定冠词两种。不定冠词仅用在单数可数名词前面,表示“一”的意义,但不强调数目观念,只表示名词为不特定者。

  定冠词则表示名词为特定者,表示“这”,“那”,“这些”,“那些”的意思,在可数的单复数名词或不可数名词前面都可以用

  2

  a和an的区别

  不定冠词有a和an两种形式,a用于辅音(不是辅音字母)开头的词前,an用于元音(不是元音字母)开头的词前。

  例如:a boy,a university,a european country;an hour,an honour,an island,an elephant,an umbrella

  3

  不定冠词的用法

  1.泛指某一类人、事或物;相当于any,这是不定冠词a/an的基本用法。

  2.泛指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物。

  3.表示数量,有“一”的意思,但数的概念没有one强烈。

  4.表示“每一”,相当于every. 例如,i go to school five days a week.我一周上五天课。

  5.用在序数词前,表示“又一”,“再一”。例如,i have three books. i want to buy a fourth one.我已经有三本书,我想买第四本。

  6.用在某些固定词组中:a lot(of)许多,大量;after a while过一会儿

  4

  定冠词的用法

  1.特指某(些)人或某(些)物,这是定冠词的基本用法。

  2.指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。例如:open the window,please.请打开窗户。

  3.指上文已经提到的人或事物。例如:i have a car. the car is red.我有一辆小汽车,它是红色的。

  4.指世界上独一无二的事物。例如:which is bigger,the sun or the earth?哪一个大,太阳还是地球?

  5.用在序数词,形容词最高级前。例如:the first lesson is the easiest one in this book.第一课是这本书最简单的一课。

  6.用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前。例如,the great wall 长城,the united states美国

  7.用在某些形容词前,表示某一类人。例如:the poor穷人,the blind盲人

  8用在姓氏复数形式前,表示“全家人”或“夫妻俩”。例如:the greens 格林一家或格林夫妻俩

  9.用在方位词前。例如:on the left在左边,in the middle of在中间

  10.用在乐器名称前。例如:she plays the piano every day.她每天弹钢琴。

  11.用在表示海洋,河流,山脉,群岛及国家和党派等名词前。

  例如:the black sea黑海,the yangzi river长江

  12.用在某些固定词组中:all the same仍然;all the time一直;at the moment此刻;at the same time同时;by the way顺便说;do the shopping/washing买东西/洗衣服;in the morning/afternoon/evening 在上午/下午/晚上;in the open air 在户外,在野外

  5

  零冠词的用法

  1.在专有名词和不可数名词前。例如,class two二班,tian’an men square天安门广场,water水

  2.可数名词前已有作定语的物主代词(my,your,his,her等)、指示代词(this/these,that/those)、不定代词(some,any等)及所有格限制时。

  例如my book(正);my the book(误)

  3.复数名词表示一类人或事物时。

  例如,they are teachers.他们是老师。

  tigers like meat.老虎喜欢吃肉

  4.在星期,月份,季节,节日前。例如:on sunday在周日,in march在三月,in spring在春天,on women’s day在妇女节

  (特例:如果月份,季节等被一个限定性定语修饰时,则要加定冠词:he joined the army in the spring of 1982.他在1982年春季参军。)

  5.在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前。例如:tom汤姆,mum妈妈

  6.在学科名称,三餐饭和球类运动名称前。例如:i have lunch at school every day.

  特例:当football,basketball指具体的某个球时,其前可以用冠词:i can see a football.我可以看到一只足球。where’s the football?那只足球在哪儿?(指足球,并非“球类运动”)

  7.在表特定的公园,街道,车站,桥,学校等之前。例如:no.25 middle school

  8.某些固定词组中不用冠词。

  (1)与by连用的交通工具名称前:by bus乘公共汽车;by car乘汽车;by bike骑/坐自行车;by train乘火车;by air/plane乘飞机;by sea/ship乘船,但take a bus,in a boat,on the bike前需用冠词

  (2)名词词组:day and night日日夜夜;brother and sister兄弟姐妹;hour after hour时时刻刻;here and there到处

  (3)介词词组:at home在家;in surprise惊奇地;at noon在中午;on foot步行;at night在晚上;on duty值日;at work在工作;on time准时;for example例如;in class在上课;on show展览;in bed在床上

  (4)go短语:go home回家;go to bed上床睡觉;go to school去上学;go to work去上班;go shopping/swimming/boating/fishing去买东西/游泳/划船/钓鱼

  6

  用与不用冠词的差异

  in hospital住院/in the hospital在医院里

  go to sea出海/go to the sea去海边

  on earth究竟/on the earth在地球上,在世上

  in front of在……(外部的)前面/in the front of在……(内部的)前面

  take place发生/take the place(of)代替

  at table进餐/at the table在桌子旁

  by sea乘船/by the sea在海边

  in future从今以后,将来/in the future未来

  go to school(church…)上学(做礼拜…)/go to the school (church…)到学校(教堂…)去

  on horseback骑着马/on the horseback在马背上

  two of us我们当中的两人/the two of us我们两人(共计两人)

  out of question毫无疑问/out of the question不可能的,办不到的

  next year明年/the next year 第二年

  a teacher and writer一位教师兼作家(一个人)/a teacher and a writer一位教师和一位作家(两个人)

  同步练习

  1.there is _____ apple on the desk.

  a. a b .the c. an d./

  2.the girl under ____ tree is my sister.

  a. a b .the c .an d./

  3.mary is from _____ usa.

  a. a b. the c. an d./

  4.he met _____ friend of his on the road.

  a. a b .the c .an d./

  5.mr black will go back to england______.

  a .by air b .by a plane c. by trains d. at a train

  6.yesterday i went to____ work on ____foot.

  a. /, / b ./, the c .the, / d. the, the

  7.there is ____“h” in the word “hour”, but____ “h”doesn’t make a sound.

  a. a, a b. a, the c. the, ,an d .an. the

  8.i’m going to see my mother. she is ill ____.

  a. in hospital b. in the hospital c. in a hospital d. at a hospital

  9. we have three meals ____day. we have breakfast at 6:30 in ____morning every day.

  a. the, the, the b. the, /, the c. a, /, the d .a, the, the

  10.——this is____ film i’ve told you about several times.

  ——it’s great. i’ve never seen ___ more moving one.

  a. a, a b. the, the c. the, a d. a, the

  11.——tina,could you please play____ piano for me while i’m singing?

  ——with pleasure.

  a .a b. an c. the d. /

  12.i want to try again. please give me____ third chance again.

  a .a b. the c. an d. /

  13. ——what’s the matter with you?

  ——i caught____ bad cold and had to stay in____ bed.

  a. a; / b. a; the c. a; a d. the; the

  14.____ sun is shining brightly.

  a. a b. an c. the d. /

  15. swimming is____ in summer.

  a. a great fun b. great fun c. great funs d. great a fun

  参考答案:

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  6-10adacc

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