2009 Text3 Q34
【1】More recently, while examining housing construction, the researchers discovered that illiterate, non-English-speaking Mexican workers in Houston, Texas, consistently met best-practice labor productivity standards despite the complexity of the building industry's work.
【1】What is the real relationship between education and economic development?【2】 We have to suspect that continuing economic growthpromotes the development of education even when governments don't force it. 【3】After all, that's how education got started. 【4】When our ancestors were hunters and gatherers 10,000 years ago, they didn't have time to wonder much about anything besides finding food. 【5】Only when humanity began to get its food in a more productive way was there time for other things.
34. The author quotes the example of our ancestorsto showthat education emerged ______.
[A] when people had enough time
偷梁换柱：虽然文中有was there time for...但这并非条件(when...)，而是结果
[B] prior to better ways of finding food
南辕北辙：虽然better ways of finding food等价于get its food in a more productive way，但这是“先决条件”而非“后续结果”
[C] when people on longer went hungry
等价代换：等价于句子【5】中的先决条件get its food in a more productive way; 亦等价于句子【2】中的economic growth
[D] as a result of pressure on government
南辕北辙：与句子【2】中的even when governments don't force it冲突
 More recently, while examining housing construction, the researchers discovered  that illiterate, non-English-speaking Mexican workers in Houston, Texas, consistently met best-practice labor productivity standards despite the complexity of the building industry's work.
 主句：[More recently], [while examining housing construction], the researchers（主）discovered（谓）
字面：最近 | 当调查住房建设时 | 研究者 | 发现
examine [iɡ'zæmin] v. 调查；检测
EN：to inspect closely; to inquire into carefully
 宾语从句：that (illiterate, non-English-speaking)（定）Mexican workers（主）(in Houston, Texas)（定）, consistently met（谓）best-practice labor productivity standards（宾）[despite the complexity of the building industry's work]（状）.
字面：没有文化的 | 不讲英语的 | 墨西哥工人 | 在休斯顿，德克萨斯 | 长期的满足 | 最佳实际劳动生产率标准 | 尽管复杂 | 建筑行业的工作
illiterate [hju:'mænəti] n. 人类；人文；人道；仁慈
EN: having little or no education
consistently [kən'sistəntli] adj. 一贯的；一致的；始终的
EN: steadily; showing steady conformity to …
complexity [kəm'pleksiti] n. 复杂性；复杂的情况
EN: the quality or state of being complex
What（表）is（系）the real relationship between education and economic development（主）?
 We have to suspect  that continuing economic growth promotes the development of education  even when governmentsdon't force it.
 主句：We（主）have to suspect（谓）
 宾语从句：that continuing economic growth（主）promotes（谓）the development of education（宾）
 让步状语从句：even when（引）governments（主）don't force（谓）it（宾）
 After all, that's how education got started.
 主句：[After all], that（主）'s（系）
 表语从句：[how] education（主）got started（谓）
 When our ancestors were hunters and gatherers 10,000 years ago,  they didn't have time to wonder much about anything besides finding food.
 时间状语从句：When（引）our ancestors（主）were（系）hunters and gatherers（表）[10,000 years ago],
 主句：they（主）didn't have time to wonder much about（谓）anything（宾）(besides finding food)（定）
 Only when humanity began to get its food in a more productive way  was there time for other things.
 条件状语从句：Only when（引）humanity（主）began to get（谓）its food（宾）[in a more productive way]
productive [prə'dʌktɪv] adj. 多产的；富有成效的
EN: having the quality or power especially in abundance
 主句：was there（谓）time（主）(for other things)（定）
humanity [hju:'mænəti] n. 人类；人文；人道；仁慈
EN: the human race; the branch of learning such as philosophy, arts, or languages; compassionate, sympathetic, or generous behavior or disposition
As education improved, humanity's productivity potential increased as well. When the competitive environment pushed our ancestors to achieve that potential, they could in turn afford more education. This increasingly high level of education is probably a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for the complex political systems required by advanced economic performance. Thus poor countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps without political changes that may be possible only with broader formal education. A lack of formal education, however, doesn't constrain the ability of the developing world's workforce to substantially improve productivity for the foreseeable future. On the contrary, constraints on improving productivity explain why education isn't developing more quickly there than it is.
35. According to the last paragraph , development of education __________.
[A] results directly from competitive environments
[B] does not depend on economic performance
[C] follows improved productivity
[D] cannot afford political changes