* 术语的英文解释引自”Poetry Foundation”（www.poetryfoundation.org）
“The repetition of initial stressed, consonant sounds in a series of words within a phrase or verse line. Alliteration need not reuse all initial consonants; ‘pizza’ and ‘place’ alliterate. Example: ‘We saw the sea sound sing, we heard the salt sheet tell,’ from Dylan Thomas’s ‘Lie Still, Sleep Becalmed.’”
Often used in political speeches and occasionally in prose and poetry, anaphora is the repetition of a word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines to create a sonic effect.
Example: 首语重复法在很多政治演说及诗歌中都有着广泛的使用，例如马丁路德金“I have a dream”的演说：
“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up, live up to the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.”
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.”
又如Joanna Klink的 “Some Feel Rain,”
Some feel rain. Some feel the beetle startle
in its ghost-part when the bark
slips. Some feel musk. Asleep against
each other in the whiskey dark, scarcely there.
(“’the phrase "some feel’ is repeated, which creates a rhythm and a sense of an accumulating emotions and meanings.”)
From the Latin term for “concept,” a poetic conceit is an often unconventional, logically complex, or surprising metaphor whose delights are more intellectual than sensual. Petrarchan (after the Italian poet Petrarch) conceits figure heavily in sonnets, and contrast more conventional sensual imagery to describe the experience of love.
Example: Shakespeare’s “Sonnet XCVII: How like a Winter hath my Absence been,”
How like a winter hath my absence been
From thee, the pleasure of the fleeting year!
What freezings have I felt, what dark days seen,
What old December’s bareness everywhere!
And yet this time removed was summer’s time,
The teeming autumn, big with rich increase,
Bearing the wanton burden of the prime,
Like widowed wombs after their lords’ decease.