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英文诗歌悦读——基础术语技巧赏析

原标题:英文诗歌悦读——基础术语技巧赏析

* 术语的英文解释引自”Poetry Foundation”(www.poetryfoundation.org)

诗歌(poetry)是一种语言高度凝练的文学体裁,常常被用作抒情言志的载体,常读直击人们心灵的诗歌无疑是丰富精神生活、探寻美的重要途径。今天我们结合几首具体作品了解一些常见的诗歌术语和基本技巧,为今后更好地读诗、品诗打下坚实的基础。

Alliteration

01

“The repetition of initial stressed, consonant sounds in a series of words within a phrase or verse line. Alliteration need not reuse all initial consonants; ‘pizza’ and ‘place’ alliterate. Example: ‘We saw the sea sound sing, we heard the salt sheet tell,’ from Dylan Thomas’s ‘Lie Still, Sleep Becalmed.’”

(头韵,即临近单词的开头使用同样的辅音)

Anaphora

02

Often used in political speeches and occasionally in prose and poetry, anaphora is the repetition of a word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines to create a sonic effect.

(首语重复法,在一串接续的短语、从句或者诗行的起始处使用重复的一个或几个单词)

Example: 首语重复法在很多政治演说及诗歌中都有着广泛的使用,例如马丁路德金“I have a dream”的演说:

“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up, live up to the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.”

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.”

又如Joanna Klink的 “Some Feel Rain,”

Some feel rain. Some feel the beetle startle

in its ghost-part when the bark

slips. Some feel musk. Asleep against

each other in the whiskey dark, scarcely there.

(“’the phrase "some feel’ is repeated, which creates a rhythm and a sense of an accumulating emotions and meanings.”)

Conceit

03

From the Latin term for “concept,” a poetic conceit is an often unconventional, logically complex, or surprising metaphor whose delights are more intellectual than sensual. Petrarchan (after the Italian poet Petrarch) conceits figure heavily in sonnets, and contrast more conventional sensual imagery to describe the experience of love.

(conceit 即通过使用非常规的比喻来传递文字背后所蕴含的深意)

Example: Shakespeare’s “Sonnet XCVII: How like a Winter hath my Absence been,”

How like a winter hath my absence been

From thee, the pleasure of the fleeting year!

What freezings have I felt, what dark days seen,

What old December’s bareness everywhere!

And yet this time removed was summer’s time,

The teeming autumn, big with rich increase,

Bearing the wanton burden of the prime,

Like widowed wombs after their lords’ decease.

THU生活英语慕课欢迎大家哦~

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