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艾尚托福阅读背单词 第10期:TPO21-2(7-12)

原标题:艾尚托福阅读背单词 第10期:TPO21-2(7-12)

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今天我们讲解托福TPO21-2 The Origins of Agriculture 的第7题到第12题需要重点记忆的单词

7. It can be inferred from paragraph 4 that it was difficult for people to change from farming back to hunting and gathering because

人们难以从农业耕作回到采集狩猎的原因是什么

定位原文:

Later on, it became very difficult to change because of the significant expansion of these populations.

后来,人口的大量增长是人们难以回到采集狩猎的原因。

重点单词:

expansion n. (expand v.) 扩张;扩大;发展(高中)

-sion 名词后缀 decision; television; discussion

正确选项:populations had become too large to be supported by hunting and gathering

8. Why does the author state that "Earth had experienced previous periods of climatic change, and yet agriculture had not been developed"?

文中作者为什么会提到"地球此前也经历了周期性的气候变化,但农业并没有得以发展"

定位原文:

It could be argued, however, that these conditions (指代前文的climatic conditions) are not sufficient to explain the origins of agriculture.

但是,为何前述条件不足以说明农业的发展。

重点单词:

sufficient (enough) adj. 足够的;sufficiency n. insufficient adj.不充足的

正确选项:

To argue that climate change does not properly explain why agriculture developed

重点单词:

properly adv. 正确地 (高中)

9. The word "imaginative" in the passage is closest in meaning to

原文:

Once humans possessed such a mind, they were able to find an imaginative solution <to a situation of severe economic crisis> <such as the farming dilemma described earlier>.

一旦人们拥有了这样的思维,他们可以找到解决严重的经济危机,例如先前所描述的解决农业困境的具有创造力的方法。

重点单词:

severe adj. 严峻的;严重的;严厉的;serious adj. 严重的;严肃的;认真的 (初中)

dilemma adj. 困境;窘境;进退两难 (CET4)

选项单词:

A. complex adj. 复杂的 (高中)complicated adj. intricate adj.

B. creative adj. 有创造力的 (高中)

C. immediate adj. 立即;马上 (高中)

D. reliable adj. 可靠的 (高中)responsible

10. According to paragraph 5, Steven Mitten believes that all of the following contributed to the emergence of farming EXCEPT:

哪一项不是Steven Mitten 所认为的导致农业产生的原因

题干单词:

contribute v. 贡献;做出有利的事情 (高中)contribution n. emerge

emergence n. 出现;浮现 (CET4)emerge v.

A选项:the development of a mind flexible enough to come up with solutions to complex problems 一个足以想出解决复杂问题的方法的大脑

重点单词:

flexible adj. 灵活的;柔韧B选项:the tendency to use plants and animals to acquire power利用动植物获取权力

重点单词:

tendency n. 倾向;趋势;tend v. tend to do sth (高中)

acquire v. 获得;acquisition n. (高中)

B选项对应原文: the tendency to use plants and animals as the medium to acquire social prestige and power 利用动植物获取权力和威望的趋势

重点单词:

medium (media 复数) n. 媒介物;媒介;adj. 中等的;普通的 (高中)

prestige n. 威望;声望 reputation的(CET4)

come up with 想出;提出;come up 出现 He came up to see me.

A选项对应原文:they were able to find an imaginative solution to a situation of severe economic crisis…他们能够想出解决经济危机问题的具有创造力的方法

D选项:the ability to make tools that could be used for the large-scale harvesting of plants

使用工具进行大规模丰收

重点单词:

large-scale adj. 大规模的 ;大型的(高中)

harvest v./n. 收割;收获(高中)

11. The word "contention" in the passage is closest in meaning to

原文:

Whether Mithen's explanation is satisfactory is open to contention, and some authors have recently emphasized the importance of other factors.

米森的解释是否恰当还有待讨论,而且近来有些作者开始强调其他因素的重要性。

题干单词:

contention n. (contend v.) 争论;竞争

emphasize v. 强调;(高中);emphasis n.

选项单词:

A. investigation n. 调查 (CET4) investigate v.

B. improvement n. 改进;提高 (高中) improve v.

C. debate n./v. 争议;争论 (高中)

D. interpretation n. 解释;说明 (CET4)interprete v

12. According to paragraph 6, which of the following is a weakness of Mitten

米森观点存在的问题

定位原文

a few entered the modern period as hunting and gathering societies

只有少数进入了现代的采集狩猎时代

some societies adopt agriculture while others remained hunter-gathers or horticulturalists…

某些社会选择农业而其他社会停留在采集狩猎或者园艺

重点单词:

adopt v. 采取;接受;收养 n. adoption n. (注意区分adapt v. 适应;改编)

horticulturist 园艺种植者

many societies that knew of agriculture more or less consciously avoided it.

有很多知晓农业的社会几乎是有意识地不选择它

重点单词:

consciously adv. 有意识地 (CET4)

正确选项:it fails to explain why some societies adopted agriculture while others did not.

fail to do sth 失败;未做成;没有做成

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