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高中英语 · 高考英语七选五解题技巧(全)

原标题:高中英语 · 高考英语七选五解题技巧(全)

1

题型解读

试题模式为:给出一篇缺少5个句子的文章,对应有七个选项,要求同学们根据文章结构、内容,选出正确的句子,填入相应的空白处。《考试说明》对该题型命题目的的表述为“主要考查考生对文章的整体内容和结构以及上下文逻辑意义的理解和掌握。”

新题型七选五其实跟传统题型完形填空有相似之处,完形填空空出的是词,而七选五空出的是句子,但是他们的考察方式都是一样的,只要考生选择的答案能够使行文连贯,符合英文的语法以及习惯表达就行,因此,这两类题型在做题方法上有共通之处。另外,从该题型给出的选项中我们可以发现一些特点:该题型选项大致可分为主旨概括句(文章整体内容)、过渡性句子(文章结构)和注释性句子(上下文逻辑意义)三类。

另外两个多余的干扰项也可以通过这三个特点来排除,例如主旨概括句要么过于宽泛要么以偏概全或偏离主题,过渡性句子不能反映文章的行文结构,注释性句子与上文脱节等。根据这些,我们总结一些关于七选五的做题方法供大家参考。

2

解题方略

1. 略读文章抓大意

以最快的速度跳跃式地浏览文章的大小标题、首段、每段的首句,以及表示句、段关系的连接性词语(特别是however, but等后的内容)等重要部分,以了解文章的基本结构和内容大意。事实上,一般只需花5~10秒阅读大小标题和第一段首尾句即可。

2. 重点阅读上下句

因为正确选项必定会与上下句之间语义衔接、逻辑通顺,解题时大多只看上句,或只看下句,就可基本确定答案。

事实上,如果没有时间来得及通读或细读,或者基础不够扎实即使读也读不懂,建议通过以下技巧,也基本上可以得满分。

3. 看看结构变轻松

在解题过程中,除了每做一道有把握的题后就在7个选项中将其画掉缩小范围外,通过观察语言结构也可将选择范围大大缩小,心情变得更加轻松,一般可将7个选项缩小到2~4个选项,碰对的机率大大提高。

(1)标题结构

如果考查段落标题,先看看其他标题的语言形式,同一文章中的几个段落小标题基本上是同一语言形式。如果其他标题是名词短语,该题答案也是名词短语;如果其他标题是祈使句,该题的答案也是祈使句。如:

1. The basic function of money.

Being explaining the basic function of money …

2. Money lessons.

Approach money lessons with openness…

3. 74

Begin at the grocery store. Pick out similar brands of a product-a name brand butter and a generic(无商标产品), for example. You can show your child how to make choices between different brands of a product so that you can save money. (2011新课标卷)

A. Wise decisions.

B. The value of money.

解析:本题要求选小标题。观察其他标题,都是名词短语,因此,本标题也应是名词短语;七个选项中只有A、B两个选项是名词短语,这样就可大大缩小选择范围;浏览两个选项,再看空后文字,发现decisions与choices大意相同(近义词),故选A项。

(2)句子结构

如果正确选项只是某个句子的一个部分,就要看看空后这个部分是不是句子,如果是句子,看看是否有连词,如果没有连词,要选的正确选项就应是短语或是带有连词的从句。如:

Training for a marathon requires careful preparation and steady, gradual increases in the length of the runs. 36 , buy the best-fitting, best-built running shoes you can find. (2015新课标卷II)

A. After six days

B. For a good marathon runner

C. Before you begin your training

E. If they still feel good, you can begin running in them

解析:从句式结构上看,逗号后是祈使句,没有连词,正确答案要么是带有连词的从句,要么是一个短语,只有A、 B、 C、 E四个选项符合,这样就缩小了选择范围;根据空前句中的preparation (准备),和常识可知是“训练前”,故选C项。

4. 词语复现显神功

作者或说话人在谈论某个话题或主题时,与主题相关的词语必定会以原词、同义词或近义词等形式在上下文中重复出现,这种现象叫词语复现。同一个词的重复出现叫原词复现;以同义词的形式重复出现,叫同义复现;以近义词或近义表达(意思相近,表达方式不同)的形式重复出现,叫近义复现;以词义相同而词性不同的形式重复出现,叫同根复现。还有上义词与下义词的复现(adult是teacher,parent的上义词,而teacher,parent就是adult的下义词)。

词语复现是语篇衔接的一个重要手段,而七选五正是考查语篇衔接,因此,利用词语复现解七选五十分管用。在近五年的8套全国新课标卷共40道题中有13道题利用这一招可直接选出答案,利用这一招可将选项缩小到2个选项的还有5道,也就是说,平均起来,几乎有一半的题仅用这一招就可解决。如:

39 If you’ve been betrayed, you are the victim of your circumstance. But there’s a difference between being a victim and living with a “victim mentality”. (2015新课标卷I)

A. Learn to really trust yourself.

C. Stop regarding yourself as the victim.

D. Remember that you can expect the best inreturn.

解析:要求选段落主题句。空后句三次出现victim一词, 七个选项中只有选项C中有victim,原词复现。将选项C“不要把自己当作受害者”代入空格处,与下文衔接紧密,故选C项。本段结构:总(总领)—分(细说)。

值得注意的是,有的题利用词语复现解题十分管用,但这并不意味着凡与上句或下句有复现词的选项就一定是正确选项,只是正确的可能性更大,在解题过程中需重点考虑或优选考虑而已。是否为正确答案,还得将含复现词的选项代入原文,看该选项与上下文是否真的衔接,只有上下衔接紧密的才是正确选项。如:

38 Having confidence in yourself will help you make better choices because you can see what the best outcome would be for your well-being. (2015新课标卷I)

A. Learn to really trust yourself.

B. It is putting confidence in someone.

C. Stop regarding yourself as the victim.

解析:要求选段落主题句。不要因为选项B与空后句中都有confidence,原词复现就选B,也不要因为选项C中与空后句中都有yourself,原词复现就选C。选项A中的trust yourself与空格后的Having confidence in yourself(信任你自己)是同义复现,所以该选项是重点考虑对象;将选项A代入原文,上下句意为“学会真正地信任你自己。信任你自己有助于做出更好的选择……”语义衔接紧密,故选A。

5. 代词逻辑亦管用

我们知道,七选五就是考查上下文之间的衔接,而代词是语篇衔接的重要手段之一,故解题中要善于利用这一衔接手段。如:

Try to solve the problem. After you’re calmand you have support from adults and friends, it’s time to get down to business. 74 Even if you can’t solve it all, you can solve a piece of it. (2012新课标卷)

D. Ah, it feels so good when the stress isgone.

E. You need to figure out what the problemis.

F. And don’t forget about your friends.

解析:本段主题句是“Tryto solve the problem”,空后句又有solve it,其中it指什么?当然是theproblem,因此,前句中一定会出现problem一词,七个选项中只有E项符合。

根据空格句与上下句之间的逻辑关系来解题,如解释关系(对前句或对主题的进一步解释)、并列关系、转折关系、因果关系、递进关系等。如:

●Get a coach

51 , so get help. Since there are about abillion companies out there all ready to offer you public speaking training and courses, here are some things to look for when deciding the training that’s right for you. (2013新课标卷II)

C. Turn your back on too many rules

D. Check the rules about dos and don’ts

E. Whatever the presentation, public speaking is tough

解析:由空后的so(因此,引出结果)可知,空处要填的应是“要得到帮助”的原因;选项E中public speaking is tough (当众演讲是困难的)正是寻求帮助的原因,故选E项。(因果逻辑关系)

6. 篇章需要基本功

有的题利用文章或段落的“总—分”结构关系来解,也很管用,但需要以下基本功:懂得整篇文章的基本结构或段落的语篇结构通常是主题句(总)+支撑句(分)(分述主题的具体内容/说明原因/举例证明等)。如:

From my experience, there are three main reasons why people don’t cook more often: ability, money, and time. 36 Money isa topic I’ll save for another day. So today I want to give you some wisdom about how to make the most of the time you spend in the kitchen. (2014新课标卷II)

A. Try new things.

B. Ability is easily improved.

C. Make three or four instead.

解析:空前主题句中提到ability,money, time三个主要原因,空后提到了money与time, 所以这里应是谈ability, 故选B项。

众所周知,有问就有答,问什么就答什么。根据这一常识,对解题也很有帮助。如:

The jobs of the future have not yet been invented. 36 By helping them develop classic skills that will serve them well no matter what the future holds. (2014新课标卷I)

C. We can give kids chances to think about materials in new ways.

D. So how can we help our kids prepare forjobs that don’t yet exist?

G. Being able to communicate ideas in a meaningful way is a valuable skill.

解析:由空后By doingsth. (通过做某事)这个表示方式的介词短语可知,此空应该是一个以how开头的疑问句,故选D项。

此外,有时利用词语同现也有助于选出正确选项。所谓词语同现,就是有相互关联的词语在上下文中有同时出现的可能性。如school, teacher, student, headmaster, class, test, fall, pass,maths, learn等这些词就有可能在同一篇文章中同时出现。如:

Your children need to be deeply curious. 37 Ask kids, “What ingredients(配料) can we add to make these pancakes even better next time?”(2014新课标卷I)

A. Encourage kids to cook with you.

B. And we can’t forget science education.

C. We can give kids chances to think about materials in new ways.

解析:与空后句中的ingredients(配料),pancakes(薄煎饼)可能同时出现的,只有选项A中的cook,故选A项(鼓励孩子跟你一起烹饪)。

3

十大技巧

技巧一:从细节逻辑上判断---因果关系

在做题时最重要的是要读懂空白前后的句子,明白这几句话的确切意思,然后根据意思的连贯性或逻辑性从选项中选取正确答案。在读懂意思的基础上,判断它们之间的关系来进一步确认答案。

因果关系主要指前后的句子有着原因和结果之间的关系,这种关系往往说明了前因后果或者前果后因等情况。表示因果关系的连词有as a result结果,thus/therefore因此,so (such)...如此------以至于等。

技巧二:从细节逻辑上判断---转折关系

转折关系主要指英语行文中后句对前句构成逆转逻辑关系。如果空格前后两句话之间是逻辑上的逆转,则空格处很有可能是个转折逻辑的句子。

表示转折关系的连接词有:However然而, nevertheless仍然,然而,不过, nonetheless尽管如此,依然,然而, still还;然而, though可是,不过,然而, yet然而, in spite of不顾,不管, at any rate无论如何,至少, in any case无论如何,不管怎样, whoever无论是谁, whatever无论什么,on the contrary正相反, in contrast与此相反, 相比之下, by contrast相反, 相比之下, in comparison比较起来,比较地, by comparison相比之下, conversely相反(地), otherwise否则;除此以外,not---but不是-----而是,as well也等。

技巧三:从细节逻辑上判断---例证关系

前后句的某句是为了证明另一句而举的例子。例证的形式多样,但就其本质而言无非是思维上的形象(例子、类比等)和抽象(观点)的辩证关系,用到的思维过程无非就是基本的归纳(从例子到观点)和推理(从观点到例子)。

技巧四:从细节逻辑上判断---递进关系

递进关系主要指英语行文中后句对前句是一种顺承逻辑关系。如果空格前后两句话之间是逻辑上的层进关系,则空格处很有可能是个递进的句子。

表示递进关系的连词有:also也, 而且, further另外(的);, furthermore而且,此外, likewise同样地,照样地;也,又, similarly相似地,类似地, moreover而且再者,此外, in addition另外,加之, what’s more更重要的是, too也,还, either也, neither两者都不, not only…but also不但…而且等。

技巧五:从细节逻辑上判断---平列关系

表示列举关系的有:first首先, 第一, second第二, third第三…; firstly第一, 首先, secondly第二(点);其次, thirdly第三…; first第一, next其次, then那么, 然后…; in the first place第一,首先, in the second place第二, 其次…; for one thing首先,一则, for another thing其次…; to begin with首先,第一, to conclude首先,第一等

技巧六:从词汇线索上判断---代词

英语表达中的代词出现的频率极高,代词的作用是指代前面提及的名词或形容词概念,巧妙利用这样的指代关系和根据代词的单复数差异可以准确而快速地解题。

技巧七:从词汇线索上判断---同义词/近义词

英语前言后语之间往往有同义词、近义词、近义表达语甚至相同词汇的重复使用,这是我们解题的一个很好的判断线索。其实就其本质而言,上文讲的代词和下文将涉及的上下义词和同一范畴词都是特殊的同义/近义词。

技巧八:从词汇线索上判断---上下义词/同一范畴词

上下义词和同一范畴词就是前者包含了后者,或可以说后者是前者的一个子集。利用前后句中这样的特殊的同义关系常常可以很轻松地解题。

技巧九:从试题位置上判断---问题在段首

假如问题出现在段首,它通常是段落主题句。认真阅读后文内容,根据段落一致性原则,查找同义词或其他相关的词,推断出主题句。

另外着重阅读后文第一两句,锁定线索信号词,然后在选项中查找相关特征词。

通常正确答案的最后一句与空白后的第一句在意思上是紧密衔接的,因此这两句间会有某种的衔接手段,尤其当选项是几句话时。

技巧十:从试题位置上判断---问题在段尾

所选答案是引出下一段的内容。如果在选项中找不出与前文之间的关联,此时可考虑与下一段开头是否有一定的衔接。认真阅读下一段开头几句,看是否与选项的最后一句紧密连接起来。

分析与前文是转折或是对比关系。此时要注意在选项中查找表示转折、对比的关联词,同时注意选项中所讲内容是否与前文在同一主题上形成对立、对比关系。

如果第一段的段尾是空白,要认真阅读,看此处是细节还是主题。通常文章第一段要提出文章的主题,如果在段尾提出主题,会用一些信号词如转折词引出来,正确答案中应有这样的特征词。

段尾通常是结论、概括性语句。注意在选项中查找表示结果、结论、总结等的信号词,如therefore, as a result, thus, hence, in short, to sum up, to conclude, in a word等词语,选项中也可发现前文的同义词句。

4

三套真题及答案解析

(一)新课标Ⅱ卷

A garden that's just right for you

Have you ever visited a garden that seemed just right for you, where the atmosphere of the garden appeared to total more than the sum(总和) of its parts?16 . But it doesn't happen by accident. It starts with looking inside yourself and understanding who you are with respect to the natural world and how you approach the gardening process.

17

Some people may think that a garden is no more than plants, flowers, patterns and masses of color. Others are concerned about using gardening methods that require less water and fewer fertilizers(肥料). 18 . However, there are a number of other reasons that might explain why you want to garden. One of them comes from our earliest years.

●Recall(回忆)your childhood memories

Our model of what a garden should be often goes back to childhood. Grandma‟s rose garden and Dad‟s vegetable garden might be good or bad, but that‟s not what‟s important.19 ---how being in those gardens made us feel. If you‟d like to build a powerful bond with your garden, start by taking some time to recall the gardens of your youth. 20 ,then go outside and work out a plan to translate your childhood memories into your grown-up garden. Have fun.

A. Know why you garden

B. Find a good place for your own garden

C. It‟s our experience of the garden that matters

D. It‟s delightful to see so many beautiful flowers

E. Still others may simply enjoy being outdoors and close to plants

F. You can produce that kind of magical quality in your own garden, too

G. For each of those gardens, writer down the strongest memory you have

【答案】16. F 17. A 18. E 19. C 20. G

18.E 本段前两句提出有些人认为花园只是一些花花草草,有些人关心少用水少用废料。本句仍然在说明人们对园艺的不同看法。故E项“还有其他人只是喜欢在户外接触植物”与上下文一致,也是人们对于园艺的观点。

19.C 根据前句“......那些都不重要”可知划线句强调的是在园艺中对我们来说真正重要的是什么。故C项“重要的是我们搞园艺的经历”符合上下文串联。

20.G 本部分介绍如果我们自己建一个花园,要回忆一下年轻的时候所看到的那些花园,并把这些花园的优点写下来,然后制定计划并把自己的计划变成美丽的花园。故G项与上下文一致。

(二)北京卷

The Science of Risk-Seeking

Sometimes we decide that a little unnecessary danger is worth it because when we weigh the risk and the reward, the risk seems worth tasking. 71 Some of us enjoy activities that would surprise and scare the rest of us. Why? Experts say it may have to do with how our brains work.

The reason why any of us take any risks at all might have to do with early humans. Risk-takers were better at hunting, fighting, or exploring. 72 As the quality of Risk-taking was passed from on ration to the next, humans ended up with a sense of adventure and a tolerance for risk.

So why aren’t we all jumping out of airplanes then? Well, even 200,000 years ago, too much risk-taking could get one Killed. A few daring survived, though, along with a few stay-in-the-cave types. As a result, humans developed a range of character types that still exists today. So maybe you love car racing, or maybe you hate it. 73

No matter where you are on the risk-seeking range, scientists say that your willingness to take risks increases during your teenage years. 74 To help you do that, your brain increases your hunger for new experiences. New experiences often mean taking some risks, so your brain raises your tolerance for risk as well.

Mean taking some risks, so your brain raisers your tolerance for risk as well.

75 For the risk-seekers a part of the brain related to pleasure becomes active, while for the rest of us, a part of the brain related to fear becomes active.

As experts continue to study the science of risk-seeking, we’ll continue to hit the mountains, the waves or the shallow end of the pool.

A. It all depends on your character.

B. Those are the risks you should jump to take.

C. Being better at those things meant a greater chance of survival.

D. Thus, these well-equipped people survived because they were the fittest.

E. This is when you start to move away from your family and into the bigger world.

F. However, we are not all using the same reference standard to weigh risks and rewards.

G. New brain research suggests our brains work differently when we face a nervous situation.

【答案与解析】

本次七选五依然为常考的说明文,讲解了目前人类对于“追求冒险”的研究,“风险追求”与人脑关系以及“追求冒险”对人类的影响。文章结构清晰,整体难度适中,解题线索明显,考生应谨慎应对干扰项。

71.【答案】F

【解析】本题前一句讲到了“weigh the risk and reward”,衡量“风险与回报”,与选项 F“we are not using the same reference standard to weigh risks and rewards ”我们使用不同的参考标准衡量“风险与回报”相互呼应,所以答案选F。

72.【答案】C

【解析】本题前一句提到早期人类三种生存技能“hunting, fighting, exploring”与选项 C 擅长这些意味着更大的生存机会相呼应,“those things” 指代上文的三项技能,所以答案选 C。

73.【答案】A

【解析】本题前两句提到人类所发展形成的不同性格今天依然存在,以及前一句“你”有可能喜欢赛车,有可能不喜欢,这与选项 C“这都取决于你的性格”相呼应,所以答案选 A。

74.【答案】E

【解析】本题前一句提到了冒险的意愿在青春期增长,与选项 E“这是一个你离开家进入更广阔的世界的时期,”相呼应,所以答案选 E。

75.【答案】G

【解析】本题后一句“对于冒险,追求冒险的人大脑中与快乐相关的部分变得活跃,不喜欢冒险的人的大脑与恐惧相关的部分变得活跃”,与选项 G“我们的大脑以不同方式工作”相呼应,所以答案选 G。

(三)四川卷

Both men and women are living longer these days in industrialized countries. 16 In general, they can expect to live six or seven years more than men. One reason for this is biological.

One important biological factor that helps women live longer is the difference in hormones between men and women. 17 Between the ages of about 12 and 50, women produce hormones that are involved in fertility(生育能力). These hormones also have a positive effect on the heart and blood flow. In fact, women are less likely to have high blood pressure or to die from heart attacks.

18 They help the body defend itself against some kinds of infections. This means that women generally get sick less often and less seriously than men. The common cold is a good example: women, on average, get fewer colds than men.

19 Scientists are still not exactly sure how genes influence aging, but they believe that they do. Some think that a woman’s body cells have a tendency(向) to age more slowly than a man’s. Others think that a man’s body cells have a tendency to age more quickly.20

A.However, women, on average, live longer.

B .The biological factor plays an important part.

C. Women are also helped by their female genes.

D. The female hormones also protect the body in another way.

E. Recent research seems to support both of these possibilities.

F. Therefore, women are more healthy than men and can live a better life.

G. Hormones are chemicals which are produced by the body to control various body functions.

【答案与解析】

试题分析:女性比男性寿命长的原因。

17. G 根据空格上句:男性和女性之间荷尔蒙的不同帮助女性寿命更长。可知此空的意思是:荷尔蒙是身体生产的控制各种身体功能的化学物质。故选G。

18. D 根据下句:它们帮助身体本身抵抗各种感染。可知此空的意思是:女性荷尔蒙也用另一种方式保护身体。故选D。

19. C 根据下句:科学家仍然没有确切地表明基因怎样影响年龄,但是他们认为基因却是在影响年龄。可知上句:女性基因也在帮助女性。

20. E 根据空格前两句:一些人认为女性身体细胞有一个比男性老化慢的倾向,另一些人认为男性身体细胞有一个老化快的倾向。可知E项符合题意。“最近研究似乎支持这两种可能”。故选E。

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