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预防肝炎感染,你可以留意这些!

原标题:预防肝炎感染,你可以留意这些!

A Visual Guide to Hepatitis

肝炎的视觉指南

What Is Hepatitis?

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It may be caused by drugs, alcohol use, or certain medical conditions. But in most cases, it's caused by a virus. This is known as viral hepatitis, and the most common forms are hepatitis A, B, and C.

什么是肝炎?

肝炎是肝脏的一种炎症。它可能由药物,酒精使用,或者特定的医疗状况造成。大多情况下,肝炎是由病毒引起的。这就是病毒性肝炎,最常见的形式是甲、乙、丙型肝炎。

Hepatitis Symptoms

Sometimes there are no symptoms of hepatitis in the first weeks after infection -- the acute phase. But when they happen, the symptoms of types A, B, and C may include fatigue, nausea, poor appetite, belly pain, a mild fever, or yellow skin or eyes (jaundice). When hepatitis B and C become chronic, they may cause no symptoms for years. By the time there are any warning signs, the liver may already be damaged.

肝炎症状

急性感染初期的几周内通常没有任何症状。

但是当它们发生时,甲、乙、丙型肝炎的症状包括如下这些:疲劳,恶心,食欲不振,腹部疼痛,轻度发烧,黄皮肤、眼睛(黄疸)。当乙型、丙型肝炎转变成慢性时,它可能会多年持续无任何症状表现。当出现任何警告信号时,肝脏可能已经被损伤。

Hepatitis: What Puts You at Risk

肝炎:什么使你处于风险之中

我国肝炎患者基数大,因而日常中更应该清楚自己应该注意什么,来降低患病风险,希望看完以下内容对您有帮助!

Hepatitis Types and Liver Risks

Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. It can be caused by several viruses. The main types in the United States are A, B, and C. Type A symptoms are often similar to a stomach virus. But most cases resolve within a month. Hepatitis B and C can cause sudden illness. However, they can lead to liver cancer or a chronic infection that can lead to serious liver damage called cirrhosis.

肝炎类型及肝脏风险

肝炎就是肝脏发生炎症。它可能由多种病毒导致。在美国,主要的肝炎类型有乙、丙型。甲型肝炎经常与肠胃病毒相关,多数情况下在一个月内会自愈。乙肝、丙肝会导致急性感染。同时,他们可能导致肝癌或者肝硬化这类严重损伤肝脏的慢性感染。

Contamination Spreads Hepatitis

Hepatitis A is spread by eating food or drinking beverages that have been contaminated with the feces of an infected person. You can also get infected through close contact with a person who has hepatitis -- for example, by changing a diaper or through sexual contact. Poor sanitation and poor hygiene increase the risk. Hepatitis B and C are spread mainly through infected blood, semen, or other body fluids.

污染传播肝炎

甲型肝炎可通过食用被感染者排泄物污染的食物或饮料传播。你也可以通过与患有肝炎的人的密切接触而感染---例如换尿布或者性接触。糟糕的卫生条件会提高感染风险。乙型和丙型肝炎主要通过受感染的血液、精液或其他体液传播。

Hepatitis A Risks: Produce and DrinkngWater

Hepatitis A outbreaks have been traced to eating contaminated fresh fruits, vegetables, and salads. Wash produce well before eating, even if you plan to peel it. You can also get hepatitis A by drinking contaminated water. Boil river or lake water. Visiting a developing country? Stick to bottled water and skip ice unless it’s made from bottled water. Vaccines are available for hepatitis A and B, but not C.

甲型肝炎风险:生产和饮酒

甲型肝炎的爆发可追溯至食用受污染的新鲜水果、蔬菜和沙拉。即使你打算把它剥掉,也要在吃之前先洗好。你也可以通过饮用被污染的水来感染甲型肝炎。把河流或湖泊的水烧开。访问一个发展中国家?坚持瓶装水,除非是瓶装水,否则不要冰。对于甲型肝炎和乙型肝炎可有疫苗预防,但丙型肝炎没有。

Raw Shellfish

Because shellfish is sometimes harvested from polluted waters, uncooked oysters, clams, and mussels can transmit hepatitis A. That's something to think about before your next trip to the raw bar. Cooked shellfish is safer.

生鲜贝类

因为贝类有时会从受污染的水域中收获,未煮熟的牡蛎、蛤蚌和贻贝会传播甲型肝炎,这是你下次去原始酒吧之前要考虑的问题。煮熟的贝类更安全。

Unclean Hands

Hepatitis A can survive outside the body for months. Good hygiene -- including always washing your hands or using hand sanitizer after using the toilet, changing a diaper, and before handling food or eating -- helps prevent the spread of hepatitis A. Using a public restroom? Flush with your foot, and use a paper towel to turn off the faucet and open the door on your way out.

不干净的双手

甲型肝炎可以在体外存活数月。良好的卫生习惯——包括在使用完厕所、换尿布后,在处理食物或吃东西之前洗手或使用洗手液,——有助于防止甲型肝炎的传播?使用公厕?使用脚踏式水阀冲水,借用纸巾把水龙头关起来,在出门的时候打开门。

Contaminated Blood

Infected blood and body fluids spread hepatitis B and C. Infection can be passed from mother to child during birth, between sexual partners, or through contact with open wound. It can also be spread by contaminated dental instruments, though sterilization practices make this unlikely. Donor blood is screened in the United States, so the risk of hepatitis from a transfusion is small. One transfusion in 205,000 transmits hepatitis B, and one in 2 million transmits hepatitis C.

受感染的血液

乙肝和丙肝可通过被感染的血液和体液传播。感染可以在生小孩时由母亲传给孩子,也在性伴侣之间传播、与开放性的伤口接触传播。,它也可以通过受污染的牙科器械传播,尽管消毒措施使这种可能性较小。在美国,捐献的血液是经过筛查的,因此,输血的传播肝炎的风险是很小的。在205000输血中发生1例乙肝传播,而在200万例输血中有1例发生丙肝病毒传播。

Tattoos and Piercings

Getting a tattoo or piercing? Lessen your risk of hepatitis B and C by finding a salon that’s serious about controlling infections. It should be clean and tidy, the staff licensed and well trained. Are the tools heat-sterilized between uses? Hepatitis B and C can be transmitted through improper sterilization and reuse of equipment such as needles. And make sure people wash their hands and put on fresh gloves before touching you.

纹身和穿孔

纹身还是穿孔?通过寻找一个认真看待和控制感染的沙龙中心,减少乙型和丙型肝炎的传播风险。它应该是干净整洁的,员工持牌照和受过良好的培训。工具在使用之间进行热灭菌吗?乙型和丙型肝炎可通过不当的消毒和重复使用如针管等设备进行传播。在接触你之前,要确保人们洗手并戴上新的手套。

Pedicures, Manicures, and Hair Cuts

Trips to the salon or barbershop may pose a small risk of exposure to Hepatitis B and C. While there's a small (2%-5%) chance of transmitting hepatitis through grooming items, anytime there's potential for exposure to blood you may be at risk for hepatitis. Reduce your risk by bringing your own nail files, cuticle clippers, razors, or other equipment.

修脚,修指甲,剪头发

在沙龙或理发店里,感染乙型和丙型肝炎的风险比较小,尽管通过美容用品传播肝炎的机会只有一小部分(2%-5%),但只要有可能接触到血液,你就有可能患肝炎。通过携带自己专用的指甲锉、指甲钳、剃刀或其他设备来降低你的风险。

Sexual Contact

Having sex with someone who has hepatitis B is a major cause of new infections. The hepatitis B virus can be found in an infected person's blood, vaginal fluid, or semen. Short of abstinence, being vaccinated is the surest way to avoid being infected by your partner. Latex condoms and dental dams may help reduce your risk, too.

性接触

与乙型肝炎患者发生性行为是导致新感染的主要原因。乙型肝炎病毒可在感染者的血液、阴道液或精液中找到。除了禁欲,接种疫苗是避免被伴侣感染的最可靠的方法。乳胶避孕套和牙套也可以降低你的风险。

Sharing Personal ItemsHepatitis B and C can spread by sharing personal items belonging to someone else. That goes for toothbrushes, razors, nail clippers, washcloths, needles, or anything else that might harbor traces of infected blood. Keep these items for your own use only.

分享私人用品

乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎可以通过共享属于他人的个人物品来传播。牙刷,剃刀,指甲钳,毛巾,针,或者其他任何可能含有被感染的血液的东西。这些私人物品请只供自己使用。

图文来源:WedMD

翻译:Crystal

本文版权归原作者所有,不做商业用途!

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