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Something Chinese | The Lunar Calendar

原标题:Something Chinese | The Lunar Calendar

The lunar calendar is China's traditional calendar, also called the Yin calendar, Hua calendar, summer calendar, Han calendar, Zhong calendar and other names. According to the lunar calendar, the change period of lunar phases is the length of the synodic moon, with the composition of "twenty-four solar terms" in the dry-branch calendar. The solar tropical year is referred to as the length of the year.Besides, the lunar calendar is based on the Yin calendar (summer calendar), which combines elements of the solar calendar. So technically speaking, our lunar calendar should not be called the lunar calendar, but the yin-yang calendar.

农历是我国传统历法,又有阴历、华历、夏历、汉历、中历等名称。农历取月相的变化周期即朔望月为月的长度,加入干支历“二十四节气”成分,参考太阳回归年为年的长度,通过设置闰月以使平均历年与回归年相适应。农历是以阴历(夏历)为基础,融合阳历成分而成的一种历法。所以我国的农历从严格意义上说不应该叫阴历,而是阴阳合历。

The lunar year is divided into ordinary years and leap years. The ordinary year is twelve months; In a leap year there are thirteen months. The months are divided into the big months and the small months, the big months 30 days, the small months 29 days, its average calendar month is equal to a full moon. Whether big or small is determined by calculation.

农历的年份分为平年和闰年。平年为十二个月;闰年为十三个月。月份分为大月和小月,大月三十天,小月二十九天,其平均历月等于一个朔望月。一年中哪个月大,哪个月小,由计算决定。

The lunar calendar takes the relationship between the sun, moon and earth into account and does not consider the earth's orbit around the sun. Therefore, season changes on the lunar calendar does not have fixed time, can not reflect the seasons. The number of days in the lunar year is sometimes one month different from that in the solar year. In order to coordinate the number of days between the synodic month and the tropic year, the number of days of the lunar month was adjusted to the number of days of the tropic year in the solar calendar through the "placement leap method".

农历是兼顾太阳、月亮与地球关系的一种历法。阴历不考虑地球绕太阳的运行,因而使得四季的变化在阴历上就没有固定的时间,不能反映季节。阴历年相比阳历年在天数上有时会相差一个月;为了协调朔望月与回归年之间的天数,于是便通过“置闰法”进行调整使阴历月相总天数与阳历回归年总天数相适应。

From the power of ancient era to the late Qing dynasty to enable western (Gregorian calendar), repeatedly revised calendar history, produced more than 102 units Chinese calendar in total, which has exerted a significant influence on Chinese culture and civilization. Although some calendars were even not formally used, they still contributed to preserving one's health, medical, academic thought, astronomy and mathematics.

从上古的干支纪元到清朝末期启用西历(格里历),历史多次修订历法,中国历史上一共产生超过102部历法,这些历法对中国文化与文明产生过重大影响,有的历法虽然没有正式使用过,但对养生、医学、思想学术、天文、数学等有所作用。

After the foundation of the republic of China, the western calendar was adopted and the western calendar and the republican calendar were adopted to count the years, which leads to the traditional Chinese calendar’s abolishment. When the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, it continued to use the western calendar to mark the year in the Christian era. However, it retained the use of the traditional Chinese calendar, the lunar calendar, and promulgated the national standard "the compilation and promulgation of the lunar calendar" in 2017. The current lunar calendar is calculated by the Purple Mountain Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and is a part of the official almanac, “the Chinese astronomical almanac”.

中华民国成立,采用西历,纪年采用西历或民国纪年并用,并欲废除中国传统历。中华人民共和国在1949年成立时,继续使用西历,以公元纪年;但保留中国传统历——农历的使用,并于公元2017年颁布了国家标准《农历的编算和颁行》。现行农历由中国科学院紫金山天文台负责计算,属于官方历书《中国天文年历》的组成部分。

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