题源报刊(47): 全球资本化对现代经济的改变

原标题:题源报刊(47): 全球资本化对现代经济的改变

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Imagine it's January 2,000 and you are asked to look into a crystal ball and predict the course of the global economy over the next six years. The misty glass gives you some hints: the coming stock-market collapse, followed by suicide airliner attacks on the Twin Towers and two wars, all leading to a quadrupling in the price of oil. Faced with these facts, no one would have foreseen the economy's response: between 2,000 and 2,006, global per capital GDP rose by 3.2 percent a year, the fastest six-year growth spurt ever.

What explains this astonishingly resilient world? As occasionally happens it history, broad structural shifts created a tidal wave of growth that overwhelmed the business cycles and political tensions of the age. Today, for the first time, there is a genuinely global economy. Over the last 15 years, virtually all countries have come to govern themselves by the basic rules of open trade and markets. From India to China and Costa Rica to South Africa, the "emerging markets" —really, the emerged markets—now make up 30 percent of global GDP. The immediate effect of all this growth is rising demand, particularly for raw materials and energy. (Commodity prices are not simply high, they are at 200-year highs.) That's a big reason that oil-price shock has not slowed the economy: the spike is the result of a boom in demand, not a squeeze in supply.

Look around the world of markets and you will see an odd phenomenon. There is a group of countries that can flout all the rules, resist modernization and spout anticapitalist rhetoric. The list is obvious: Iran, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Venezuela. These oil-rich countries are exceptions to the new rules of the global economy. Indeed, their existence is made possible by the success of the global market.

This is the yin and yang of the modern economy. Global capitalism creates demand, which creates space for non-capitalists. Consider the political consequences: Venezuela has been engaged in the most spirited challenge to American interests in the Western Hemisphere in a generation. Iran is making a bid to become a regional hegemony. Russia, arguably the richest country in natural resources, is attempting nothing less than conquest of its old empire.

Oil supplies will stay tight for a simple reason. There are only five countries that matter in the world of oil-Saudi Arabia, Iran, Russia, Iraq and Venezuela. In none of these, with the possible exception of Saudi Arabia, are serious efforts and investments being made to expand the supply of oil. Russian production is growing at less than 3 percent a year. Iran is flat. Iraq is in chaos and Venezuelan production has dropped 50 percent since Hugo Chavez took office.

What all these nations need is government that would invest the oil windfalls in expanding production and supply—but that would take 10 to 15 years to bear fruit.

小试牛刀

1.Which country isn't mentioned as one of the countries which governed themselves by the basic rules of open trade and markets over the last 15 years?

A.India

B.China

C.North Africa

D.Costa Rica

2.What does the word "tidal" mean in line 2, paragraph 2?

A. can't be stopped

B. can be changed

C.not so strong

D.can be controlled

3.What is the possible reason that oil-rich countries like Russia can exist in the world?

A.Flouting all the rules

B.The success of the global market

C.The resistance to modernization

D.Spouting anticapitalist rhetoric

4.Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE according to the passage?

A. There is a genuinely global economy for the first time.

B. The demand for raw materials and energy is rising.

C.Global capitalism creates space for non-capitalists.

D.Russia is attempting to surpass other countries.

5.Which of the following is not the reason why oil supplies will stay tight?

A.There are only five countries that matter in the world of oil.

B. Iran is flat while Iraq is in chaos.

C.Russian production is growing little

D.Those five countries expand the supply of oil

核心词汇

向上滑动查看核心词汇)

anticapitalist[ænti:'kæpɪtəlɪst]

adj.反对资本主义的

flat[flæt]

adj.平坦的,扁平的,单调的

astonishingly[ə'stɒnɪʃɪŋlɪ]

adv.惊人地,异常的

flout[flaʊt]

vt. 轻视,嘲笑,愚弄vi表示轻蔑

capita['keɪpətə]

(牲畜的)总(头)数

foresee[fɔ:rˈsi:]

vt.预见,预知

chaos[ˈkeɪɑ:s]

n.混乱,混沌(宇宙未形成前的情形)

overwhelm[ˌoʊvərˈwelm]

vt.淹没,受打击,制服,压倒

collapse[kəˈlæps]

n. 倒塌,崩溃

quadrupling[kwɒ'dru:plɪŋ]

四倍

commodity[kəˈmɑ:dəti]

n.日用品

resist[rɪˈzɪst]

vt.抵抗,反抗,忍得住

conquest[ˈkɑ:ŋkwest]

n.征服

rhetoric[ˈrɛtərɪk]

adj. 花言巧语的

spout[spaʊt]

vt.滔滔不绝地讲

spurt[spɜ:rt]

n.(液体等的)喷射,冲刺

exception[ɪkˈsɛpʃən]

n.除外,例外,反对

squeeze[skwiz]

n.压榨,挤

tidal[ˈtaɪdl]

adj.潮汐的,定时涨落的

tension[ˈtɛnʃən]

n.紧张(状态),不安

windfall[ˈwɪndˌfɔl]

n.被风吹落的果子

(尤指苹果),横财

长难句解析

1. As occasionally happens in history, broad structural shifts created a tidal wave of growth that overwhelmed the business cycles and political tensions of the age.

结构分析:本句是一个复合句。主句是 broad structural... wave of growth;As occasionally happens in history是一个as 引导的非限定性定语从句,来指代后面整个句子; that overwhelmed... of the age是一个that引导的限定性定语从句,来修饰a tidal wave of growth。

参考译文:如同历史上曾偶尔出现过的情形,广泛的结构性转变带来了势不可挡的发展浪潮,其势头远远超过了商业周期和政治局势的紧张所带来的影响。

2. What all these nations need is government that would invest the oil windfalls in expanding production and supply—but that would take 10 to 15 years to bear fruit.

结构分析:本句是一个并列句。but前后两个有转折关系的分句;What all these nations need是一个what引导的主语从句,来做is的主语; that would invest... and supply是一个that引导的定语从句,来修饰 government。

参考译文:这些国家所需要的,是一个能将石油暴利投入到扩大生产和扩大供应中的政府一而这种投入可能需要10年到15年才会收到成果。

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