【知识贴】朱德群 | 象外之象,景外之景

原标题:【知识贴】朱德群 | 象外之象,景外之景

朱德群身处巴黎的工作室,摄于2010年。2001年这位艺术家被授予法国国家荣誉军团勋章 © Jerome Huffer/Paris Match

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Jannik - Grace

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我的画越趋于无形, 我就越接近中国唐宋的绘画思想。我的抽象是属于中国的, 属于中国传统的唐宋年代的山水。西方画家画中的风景是对自然的模仿, 而中国画的山水则与实景有一个距离, 是一种符号, 是一种更深的有形的自然。

——朱德群

西方艺术家重分别,他的绘画是直接检视他的眼睛所见到的场景的结果。而中国画家重综合,他的作品并不以追求具体形态为目标,而是表达自然形态的精髓,以内心情感和娴熟笔法达到这个目的。中国艺术是强调自然的真实描写的——强调“内在真实”,区别于仅仅复制对象的外在形式特征,是通过忠实地复制自然的可见形态,去表达深层含义——艺术家心中所领悟的自然运作规律。1

朱德群

Chu Teh-chun (1920-2014)

1920年,出生于萧县白图镇(萧县原属江苏省徐州,1955年划归安徽省),萧县是中国著名的书画之乡。“扬州八怪”之一的黄慎曾经寄居于此,为这里留下了“尚艺”之风。萧县位于长江以北,绵延数百里,是天下闻名的黄山所在地。山上的松柏依嶙峋绝壁而生,紧靠着笔直陡峭的山崖和云雾缭绕的山峰,是众多古典画作和诗歌的题材。

他的父亲和祖父世代行医,知书达理,喜爱作画自娱,亦热爱收藏字画与诗集,使朱德群从小耳濡目染于传统诗书画氛围中。

杭州国立艺术院 , 1926年

朱德群,从小热爱体育运动,青年时个子也很高,原本励志报考体专,被富有远见的父亲劝阻,于1935年报考杭州艺术专科学校,与赵无极是同门师兄,并结缘吴冠中(在朱德群的影响下,原本学电机专业的吴冠中于第二年也报考了杭州艺专)。

学生时代的朱德群既喜欢林风眠、吴大羽教授的西洋绘画,也非常喜欢潘天寿教授的中国传统书画,非常勤奋用功,甚至可以同时左手磨墨,右手画画。

早年在巴黎的朱德群与董景昭

1955年,朱德群在台北的一个个展作品全部售出,带给他一笔充足的资金,他毅然决然放弃了此刻的功成名就,搭乘去往巴黎的邮轮,去往梦寐以求的艺术之都。

邮轮上遇见后来陪伴他一生的妻子——董景昭女士(曾经他在台湾最优秀的学生)。为了家庭的付出,董景昭女士最终放弃了自己的艺术追求,成就了朱德群的辉煌,朱德群说,自己一生最幸福的是遇见了她,自己的成功一半都是妻子的功劳。

董景昭的肖像画

1956年,朱德群凭扎实的绘画功底,画妻子董景昭的肖像画,两次获得巴黎春季艺术奖项,作品被坊间称为“东方的蒙娜丽莎”。后来,朱德群在巴黎国立现代艺术博物馆看了抽象画家尼古拉·德·斯塔埃尔(Nicolas de Staël)的回顾展后,作出了一个非比寻常的决定:放弃具象绘画,一切从头开始。对于他而言,抽象表现主义代表自由,和中国书法的某些技法异曲同工,两者都是下笔迅速、一挥而就。

“澄怀味象”展览现场

我终于自由,我要表现我自己,我自己所看到的、所想到的东西。

1970年代,朱德群找到了真正属于自己的艺术前进之路,从具象到抽象、从表象到内在,从混乱到纯粹,不断扣问,发现自我的一个过程。他创作出了一种独特的抒情式抽象艺术,去表现他对于这个世界和生命的个人感悟与触动。

上,早春图,郭熙

下,金秋,朱德群

11世纪山水画大师郭熙在《林泉高致》中强调从现实主义向理想主义过渡,强调画家应当在伦常的基础之上研究自然的每一个侧面——如何表现季节的变迁,如何比较同样场景在早晨和傍晚的不同景象。如何注意及表现每一个变化时刻的独特特征,怎样选择及赋予流水和行云以感动,正如他所说,“以山水为动脉,以草木为毛发,以烟云为神采。”

在我的画面上,其色彩和线条从不是偶然的,他们和谐地达到同一目的:激活光源,唤起形象和韵律。

蒋勋说,“书法是一个时代美学最集中的表现。书法并不只是技巧,而是一种审美。看线条的美、点捺之间的美、空白的美,进入纯粹审美的陶醉,书法的艺术性才显现出来。”2

朱德群书法作品

朱德群从小随父亲练习书法,非常喜欢行草和狂草。每年夏天与父亲将家里旧藏书画摆出来晾晒、欣赏,日后仍记忆犹新。到了法国的朱德群,很难买到宣纸,后来发现肉铺包肉的虎皮纸质地非常接近宣纸,高兴地买了很多,每天练习书法。

朱德群的作品总能在看似奔放洒脱的笔触中体现细节的丰富和笔触的意趣,宽阔而急促的笔刷记录下光线流动的轨迹,增加了色彩和线条的韵律感,在大片的深色阴影下营造出清新的氛围,光的微妙变化极大地丰富了画面的景深和层次感,在不经意间塑造出幽远的意境。

诗是思想,不是现实,是抽象,是幻想。作为艺术家,最快乐的一点就是可以自由地幻想一切,思想随性畅游。

秋 Autumn

早在魏晋时期,便已开始出现山水画与诗词的结合;唐代诗人王维更是提出,诗中有画,画中有诗;宋代艺术大家苏轼与米芾更是将诗书画结合的创作形式推向一个巅峰。朱德群透过其绘画展现众多中国著名诗人的诗作,尤其是带有背井离乡、流亡之苦意味的作品。好友吴冠中甚至形容朱德群的作品为,大弦嘈嘈如急雨,小弦切切如私语。

文献参考:

1.《中国艺术史》迈克尔·苏利文 著,徐坚 译,上海人民出版社

2.《书法汉字之美》蒋勋著,广西师范大学出版社

“Return to Nature”

"Chu Teh-Chun’s painting appears to me as a mental enigma, a theatre where moving shadows act without revealing their secret: the image leads to a perpetual Elsewhere which remains both elusive and irrevocably present.” French art critic and philosopher Pierre Restany describes his impression of Chu’s artworks.

When standing in front of Chu’s paintings, one is inevitably moved by his infusive emotions permeated upon the canvases and when viewing closer, one may find semi-abstract figures in his rhythmic brushstrokes. A mountain, lake, person or meaningless brushstrokes? Audiences are confronted with an innuendo which invites themselves to fill in the mental blank with imagination.

“Return to Nature”

Chu, born in Xiao County of Jiangsu Province (now Anhui Province) in 1920, grew an interest to art at a young age for his family influence; Chu’s father, an art connoisseur had an extensive art and poetry collection, which educated the young Chu of Chinese traditional calligraphy and ink paintings. In 1935, he was admitted into National School of Fine Arts where he studied under renowned painters Fan Ganmin and Wu Dayu, who had once claimed that “Paintings should express painters’ feelings about nature as well as reality of the universe.” Feeling and Nature became the defining components of Chu’s signature style paintings.

Having exposed to Western art early in his life, he had been fascinated by works of French masters, such as Picasso and Cezanne, that prompted him to study in Paris. Upon his arrival in the art capital of the world, Chu’s portrait of his wife, which was once referred as Mona Lisa of the East, was recognized by the French Spring Salon.

绚烂 Dazzle

However, in the early 60s, his figurative paintings fell out of favour in the shifting European art market. Partly because of his worsened condition, he was diagnosed with aphasia, which drove him to convey himself through another vehicle – abstraction.

Chu’s artist friend Wu Guanzhong described Chu’s painting appear “like Western paintings when looking from afar, but when examined closely, they look like Chinese paintings.” His art introduced a new chapter of landscape painting, an integration of external landscape and his internal mindscape. His unique paintings are evocative of landscapes of Anhui Province, with the simplified lines still revealing traces of vertical cliffs and cloudy peaks from the natural environment that he was familiar with.

He metamorphoses elements from nature, world and universe into his paintings. Influenced Abstract Expressionism and Chinese shanshui paintings and tradition of poetry, Chu’s art crosses the bridge between East and West as well as between poetry and painting, in turn, incorporating subtle, Eastern touches into sublime landscapes.

溪山行旅图,范宽

Traveling amid Mountains and Streams, Fan Kuan

The tradition of integrating poetry and painting first began in Wei-Jin Dynasty of China, continued by Tang Dynasty poet Wang Wei and came to its height because of the Song Dynasty maestro of art and poetry Su Shi. Following the heritage of such masters, Chu’s paintings have taken inspiration from many renowned Chinese poems, especially the ones that express one’s sorrow upon leaving home and living in a foreign land, which connected deeply to his identity as an expatrait.

Trained in the highest level of calligraphy before studying in Paris, Chu had already mastered controlled spontaneity in creating. In landscape paintings, his free-flowing, unbridled calligraphic brushstrokes roam in the foreground of his paintings, while the background is enriched with radiating and vibrant colours, inspired by Western expressionist art.

The painting Autumn, featured in the current exhibition is one of Chu’s signature style paintings. The compelling, bright shade of red in the background echos vigorous emotions and passion, while the black brushstrokes in the foreground are evocative of mountains, horses or people, as one would usually would see in traditional Asian paintings. While one attempts to solve the conumdrum, one is lost in the sea of emotions, as the blazing patches of yellow and white begin to sparkle. While one is finding the answer to what is he painting, one is confronted with a second query: what is he really feeling.

Chu Teh-chun

He was the first Chinese member of the Academie des Beaux-Arts of France, an extraordinary accolade for any artist at the time. Together with Zao Wou-ki and Wu Guanzhong, they were famously known as the “Three Musketeers” of Chinese modernist paintings.

Chu once said in an interview that: “I paint every day. My passion and inspiration come from constantly working and endlessly creating.” He enlivened the canvases with his passion for Chinese traditional culture, Western art style and most importantly the desire to create.

Showroom

1

澄怀味象 | 华人艺术大师系列

Return to Nature | Chinese Master's Art Works Collection

艺术家 Artists

赵无极 Zao Wou-ki \ 朱德群 Chu Teh-chun

丁雄泉 Walasse Ting \ 曾海文 T’ang Haywen

出品人:吴滨

策展方:WS SPACE 無 集 & 杜若云章·上海 Je Fine Art Space

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