2019年经济学人双语:要不要禁止电子烟?

原标题:2019年经济学人双语:要不要禁止电子烟?

Leader 4

Don’t panic

稍安勿躁

Adulterated vaping fluid appears to be killing people. That is no reason to ban all e-cigarettes

劣质电子烟油对身体有害,但也不必完全禁售电子烟

“It’s time to stop vaping,” says Lee Norman, a health official in Kansas. Six people are dead in America, apparently from smoking e-cigarettes. More than 450 have contracted a serious lung disease. So Mr Norman’s advice sounds reasonable. The Centres for Disease Control and the American Medical Association agree: the country’s 11m vapers should quit. A new idea is circulating, that vaping is worse than smoking. On September 11th the Trump administration said it intends to ban non-tobacco flavoured vaping fluid. Some politicians want a broader ban on all e-cigarettes.

堪萨斯州的卫生官员诺曼·李(Lee Norman)说道,“是时候戒电子烟了。”在美国,吸食电子烟已造成6人死亡,450多人感染严重肺病。这样看来,诺曼的建议似乎合情合理。美国疾控中心与美国医学协会也一致认为,美国1100万电子烟民应该戒烟。一传十,十传百,很多人也开始相信电子烟比普通香烟更致命。9月11日,特朗普政府宣布,将禁售非烟草口味的电子烟油。一些政客甚至希望全面禁售所有电子烟。

The facts have gone up in smoke, as so often happens during health scares. Although more research is needed, the evidence so far suggests that the recent vaping deaths in America did not come from products bought in a shop but from badly made items sold on the street. In five out of six cases, the tainted vaping products were bought illicitly; the other involved liquid bought in a legal cannabis shop in Oregon. One theory is that the vape fluid was mixed with vitamin E. This is an oil—something that should not enter the lungs. If inhaled, oil causes the type of symptoms that the stricken vapers display.

当人们意识到健康受到威胁时,往往感到恐慌,事实便因此被他们抛至脑后。研究还需进一步深入,但就目前的证据来看,美国近期电子烟民死亡事件并非由正规店铺销售的电子烟引起,而是由街边贩卖的劣质电子烟所致。在六起吸烟致死的事件中,有五起都从非法渠道购买了变质的电子烟,而另外一起则在俄勒冈州一家合法大麻店购买了电子烟油。还有另一种说法,电子烟油中混入了维生素E,这种油不可吸入肺部,否则会导致同患病烟民一样的症状。

America’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is investigating the products involved, rightly refuses to panic. It says vapers should not buy products containing cannabis extract, or those sold on the street. This is sensible. When you buy an unlicensed liquid from an unregulated supplier, you have no idea what you are puffing. This is why governments also discourage people from drinking moonshine spirits, which are sometimes deadly. In Costa Rica, for example, 25 people recently died from imbibing hooch contaminated with methanol. However, just as with alcohol, regulators should draw a distinction between illicit products and the legal, unadulterated sort.

美国食药监局(FDA)正在调查相关样品,提醒人们不要惊慌。FDA还告诫消费者,不要购买含大麻提取物的电子烟,更不要在街边购买电子烟。这些建议非常妥当。如果从非法渠道购买不正规电子烟,你对吸入肺部的东西根本一无所知。这也是为什么政府建议人们避免饮用非法酿制及销售的烈酒,因为这种烈酒有时是致命的。以哥斯达黎加为例,最近有25人饮酒死亡,死因正是饮用了掺甲醇的酿造烈酒。然而,无论是对抽烟问题还是喝酒问题,监管部门都应该将有、无添加的烟酒产品区分开来,使合法产品与非法产品泾渭分明。

E-cigarettes are not good for you. The vapour that vapers inhale is laced with nicotine, which is addictive. Some of the other chemicals in it may be harmful. But vaping is far less dangerous than smoking tobacco—a uniquely deadly product. If people turn to e-cigarettes as a substitute for the conventional sort, the health benefits are potentially huge. Smoking kills 450,000 Americans every year, and a staggering 7m people worldwide. Anything that weans people off tobacco is likely to save lives.

吸食电子烟确实有害健康。电子烟民吸入的烟气中可能含致瘾的尼古丁,以及其他有害化学成分。但相比于香烟这一致命产品,电子烟的危害还远远不及。如果烟民将电子烟当作一种传统烟的替代品,那对他们的健康会相当有益。每年,美国都有45万人死于吸食烟草,全世界更有700万人因吸烟而丧命,这一数据令人乍舌。这样看来,只要是能够让人们远离烟草的东西,都能救人性命。

The big worry about e-cigarettes is that they will create a new generation of nicotine addicts. Some people who have never previously smoked have taken up vaping, including a worrying number of children. In America, for example, one quarter of high-school pupils vape.

电子烟尤其令人担心的是,它会使新一代人对尼古丁上瘾。许多从未吸过烟的人也都开始吸电子烟,其中还包括一些儿童,数量之大,令人担忧。美国的高中校园里,竟有1/4的学生吸电子烟。

This is alarming, and helps explain why so many governments, such as those of Egypt, Mexico, Singapore, Taiwan and Brazil, have banned e-cigarettes. They should not. Prohibition usually causes more harm than good. Forbidding e-cigarettes will lead vapers to buy illicit products—the type that are far more likely to poison them. It will also deter many law-abiding smokers from switching to something less deadly.

这种状况令人恐慌,这也是为什么埃及、墨西哥、新加坡、台湾、巴西等政府禁止吸电子烟。但它们没必要这样。颁布禁令,常常弊大于利。禁止吸电子烟会导致电子烟民去购买不合法的电子烟产品,而这些产品更容易毒害他们。禁令还会使遵纪守法的吸烟者却步,不愿改吸电子烟这种对健康危害更小的产品。

For these reasons, regulating vaping is wiser than trying to eliminate it. Governments should carefully control what goes into vape fluid, following the example of the European Union, which restricts the amount of nicotine it may contain. America’s fda, by contrast, seems constantly to change its mind about how to regulate vaping. Governments should also regulate how e-cigarettes are advertised. Marketing aimed at children is obviously unacceptable. So, perhaps, are fruity flavours that appeal especially to young palates. Government health warnings should be clear and measured. Vaping may be a dangerous habit, but it is vastly less deadly than lighting up.

因此,较为明智的做法不是彻底禁除电子烟,而是对电子烟实施监管,各国政府应严格控制电子烟油中的成分,也可以借鉴欧盟的做法,即严格控制电子烟中尼古丁的含量。而美国食药监局似乎一直对如何监管电子烟拿不定主意。各国政府也应监管电子烟的广告形式。面向儿童的推销显然是不可接受的,那些迎合年轻人口味的水果味电子烟同样如此。政府应该明确严谨地发出的健康提醒。吸电子烟可能是个坏习惯,但其远不如纸烟那么致命。

说明:译文出自中国高翻团队经济学人翻译队,经过学长学姐审校而成的译文,适合精读和翻译。经济学人是考试青睐的材料,认真学习,会受益匪浅。返回搜狐,查看更多

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