WASHINGTON — Nameless, faceless and voiceless, the C.I.A. officer who first triggered the greatest threat to President Trump’s tenure in office seemed to be practically the embodiment of the “deep state” that the president has long accused of trying to take him down.
But over the last three weeks, the deep state has emerged from the shadows in the form of real live government officials, past and present, who have defied a White House attempt to block cooperation with House impeachment investigators and provided evidence that largely backs up the still-anonymous whistle-blower.
The parade of witnesses marching to Capitol Hill culminated this week with the dramatic testimony of William B. Taylor Jr., a military officer and diplomat who has served his country for 50 years. Undaunted by White House pressure, he came forward to accuse the same president who sent him to Ukraine a few months ago of abusing his power to advance his own political interests.
本周，证人纷纷走向国会山，最终引出为国效力50年的军官和外交官小威廉·B·泰勒(William B. Taylor Jr.)引人注目的证词。他无惧白宫的压力，站出来指控这个几个月前把他派到乌克兰的总统为推进自身的政治利益滥用职权。
The House impeachment inquiry into Mr. Trump’s efforts to force Ukraine to investigate Democrats is the climax of a 33-month scorched-earth struggle between a president with no record of public service and the government he inherited but never trusted. If Mr. Trump is impeached by the House, it will be in part because of some of the same career professionals he has derided as “absolute scum” or compared to Nazis.
“With all the denigration and disparagement and diminishment, I think you are seeing some payback here, not by design but by opportunity,” said Representative Gerald E. Connolly, a Democrat from Washington’s Virginia suburbs who represents many federal employees. “It’s almost karmic justice. All of a sudden, there’s an opportunity for people who know things to speak out, speak up, testify about and against — and they’re doing so.”
“经历这么多诋毁、污蔑和贬低，我想你们现在看到的是一些复仇，这并不是被设计的，而是机会使然，“弗吉尼亚州民主党众议员杰拉尔德·E·康诺利(Gerald E. Connolly)说，他的华盛顿郊区选区生活着许多联邦雇员。“这几乎是因果报应。突然之间有了机会，了解内情的人可以站出来大声发言，给出佐证或驳斥的证词——于是他们就这么做了。”
Current and former officials like Marie L. Yovanovitch, Fiona Hill and George P. Kent told House investigators how the government was circumvented by a rogue foreign policy operation on Mr. Trump’s behalf. Michael McKinley, a four-time ambassador and senior adviser to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, described resigning after four decades at the State Department over the treatment of the career foreign service.
玛丽·L·约万诺维奇(Marie L.Yovanovitch)、菲奥娜·希尔(Fiona Hill)和乔治·P·肯特(George P. Kent)等现任和前任官员，向众议院调查人员讲述了一场为特朗普谋利益而绕过政府进行的不正常外交政策行动。四度出任大使并曾任国务卿迈克·庞皮欧(Mike Pompeo)高级顾问的迈克尔·麦金利(Michael McKinley)讲述了在国务院任职40年后，因职业外交服务的处理问题辞职的情况。
Even the original Anonymous is back, the unidentified author of a much-discussed essay in The New York Times last year claiming that officials within Mr. Trump’s administration were working “to frustrate parts of his agenda and his worst inclinations.” The writer, still unnamed, plans to publish a book next month called “A Warning.”high quality essay writing service on www.lunwentop.net
The witnesses heading to Capitol Hill do not consider themselves part of any nefarious deep state, but simply public servants who have loyally worked for administrations of both parties only to be denigrated, sidelined or forced out of jobs by a president who marinates in suspicion and conspiracy theories.
But it is also true that some career officials, alarmed at what they saw inside the corridors of government agencies, have sought ways to thwart Mr. Trump’s aims by slow-walking his orders, keeping information from him, leaking to reporters or enlisting allies in Congress to intervene.
国务卿迈克·庞皮欧的前高级顾问迈克尔·麦金利因职业外交服务的处理问题辞职。ERIN SCHAFF/THE NEW YOR
And so what is “karmic justice” for the career establishment feels like validation to Mr. Trump and his circle that they were right all along.
“What you’re seeing now, I believe, is a group of mostly career bureaucrats who are saying: ’You know what? I don’t like President Trump’s politics so I’m going to participate in this witch hunt that they’re undertaking on the Hill,’” Mick Mulvaney, the acting White House chief of staff, told reporters last week.
An Exodus of Career Officials
Mr. Trump has lashed out angrily in recent days, implicitly threatening retribution. At a campaign rally in Dallas last week, he demanded four times to know who the original whistle-blower is.
“Is the whistle-blower a spy?” he asked. “We got a lot of bad people out there,” he added, “but one by one, we’re advancing. One by one.”
He did not elaborate, but his administration is moving to weed out career officials at the National Security Council. Robert C. O’Brien, his new national security adviser, plans to pare the council staff by about a third, from 174 policy experts to under 120, by early next year, generally through attrition. He initiated the effort before the whistle-blower complaint became public and frames it as efficiency, but it is seen by some as a way to purge internal “spies.”
他没有详细说明，但他的政府正在清除国家安全委员会的职业官员。他的国家安全顾问罗伯特·C·奥布莱恩(Robert C. O’Brien)计划在明年初之前，大致通过自然减员的方式，将委员会的工作人员削减约三分之一，从174名政策专家减到120名以下。这项行动在检举前就已经开始了，他称这是出于提高效率的考虑，但在一些人看来，这是一种清除内部“间谍“的方式。
The administration has sought all along to minimize the role of career officials. In the foreign service, 45 percent of the 166 ambassadors serving under Mr. Trump are political appointees chosen based on loyalty and campaign contributions, the highest rate in history, according the American Foreign Service Association.
本届政府一直试图将职业官员的作用降到最低。根据美国外交服务协会(American Foreign Service Association)的数据，在外交部门，特朗普手下任职的166名大使中，45%是根据忠诚度和竞选献金挑选的政治任命官员，这是史上最高比例。
As a result, there has been an exodus from public service. According to the Partnership for Public Service, a nonpartisan organization, the Trump administration lost nearly 1,200 senior career service employees in its first 18 months — roughly 40 percent more than during President Barack Obama’s first 18 months in office.
结果导致公共服务人员大量流失。据无党派组织公共服务伙伴关系(Partnership for Public Service)称，特朗普政府在执政的头18个月里流失了近1200名高级职业公务员——比贝拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)总统执政的头18个月多出40%左右。
本月，前驻乌克兰大使玛丽·L·约万诺维奇在数小时的作证后离开国会山。ANNA MONEYMAKER/THE NEW YO
A Familiar Complaint Taken to a New Level
The notion of a deep state of unelected bureaucrats secretly plotting to control government has a long history but until recently was more associated with foreign countries like Turkey or Egypt. In the United States, it was largely relegated to the political fringe or the subject of Hollywood thrillers.
“Washington hasn’t taken the deep state idea seriously; they treat it as a badge of honor or an inside joke,” said John Gans, the author of “White House Warriors,” a history of the National Security Council. “But it is a concern around the country. And one that has been stoked on the right by those who support the president.”
“华盛顿一直没把’深层政府’的说法当回事；他们把它当作一种荣誉勋章或一个内部笑话，“讲述国家安全委员会历史的《白宫勇士》(White House Warriors)一书作者约翰·甘斯(John Gans)说。“但这是全国关注的问题。支持总统的右翼人士还在煽风点火。”
Mr. Trump, the first president never to have served a day in public office or the military, did not use the term deep state at first, but his hostility toward government was strong from the start. He blamed the leak of the so-called Steele dossier of unverified allegations against him on intelligence agencies and never trusted their conclusion that Russia intervened in the 2016 election on his behalf. He bristled at the National Park Service when official photos showed his Inauguration Day crowd was smaller than Mr. Obama’s.
作为美国历史上首个从未担任过任何公职或军职的总统，特朗普一开始并没有使用“深层政府“这个词，但他对政府的敌意则从来都很强烈。他将针对他的未经证实的指控——所谓“斯蒂尔档案“(Steele dossier)泄露一事——归咎于情报机构，也从不相信他们的结论，即俄罗斯为了他的利益干预了2016年大选。当官方照片显示他就职典礼当天的人群比奥巴马小时，他对国家公园管理局(National Park Service)大为光火。
He referred to officials detailed to the White House from agencies around the government as “Obama people.” When trans of his telephone calls with the leaders of Mexico and Australia were leaked, it convinced him that he could not trust the career staff and so records of subsequent calls were stashed away in a classified database — including the rough tran of his July 25 telephone call with Ukraine’s president that now has him on the verge of being impeached.
The Search for Disloyalists
It was Stephen K. Bannon, then Mr. Trump’s chief strategist and a veteran of the conspiracy-minded world of alt-right media, who first articulated the war to come, declaring shortly after the inauguration that the administration’s goal would be the “deconstruction of the administrative state.”
时任特朗普首席策略师的史蒂芬·K·班农(Stephen K. Bannon)是奉行阴谋论的另类右翼媒体资深人士，他最先阐述了这样一场战争，总统就职后不久，他就宣告，本届政府的目标是“消解行政国家。”
Other aides resisted this mind-set. When Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster became national security adviser, he barred his staff from calling career officials “Obama holdovers” and promoted some of them. Soon enough, Mr. Bannon’s allies waged a campaign against General McMaster through Breitbart News and Twitter.
其他助手反对这种心态。H·R·麦克马斯特中将(Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster)成为国家安全顾问后禁止幕僚称职业官员为“奥巴马留任者“，并提拔了他们当中的一些人。很快，班农的盟友通过布莱巴特新闻(Breitbart News)和Twitter发起了针对麦克马斯特将军的攻击。
The search for disloyalty was especially pronounced at the State Department. Diplomats said career officials had largely been cut off from viewing memorandums of conversations written after senior officials talk to foreign leaders, memos traditionally used to help junior officers issue guidance to embassy staff members across the world. (A State Department spokesman denied that access to the memos had been restricted.)
When the White House ordered foreign aid frozen this year, agency officials quietly reached out to Congress for help reversing the decision, even drawing up lists of programs that would be starved of funding to help lawmakers pressure the administration. State Department officials similarly enlisted congressional allies to hinder Mr. Trump’s efforts to push through proposed weapons sales to Saudi Arabia and other nations.
State and Defense Department officials likewise tried to undermine the president’s decision to hold up the $391 million in security aid to Ukraine that now has him in trouble, going through back channels to tip off lawmakers. Pentagon lawyers even developed a finding that the aid freeze was illegal, according to a congressional aide, only to be rejected by the White House budget office.
Mr. Taylor, the top American diplomat in Ukraine, made clear to House investigators this week that he sought to resist the president’s efforts to pressure Ukraine for political help, which he saw as “crazy” and “improper.” Even as Mr. Trump pushed to have Ukraine’s president go on CNN to publicly pledge to investigate Democrats, Mr. Taylor testified that he quietly advised Ukrainian officials not to do so for fear of getting involved in American domestic politics.
“As we are seeing pure-form Trumpism take over foreign policy, it is bumping up against the reality of professionalism,” said Derek Chollet, a former Obama administration official. “Even if there are people who may agree with the policy of the Trump administration, the way the administration and this president goes about doing business is unprofessional, unethical, perhaps illegal. And whatever your policy views, that cuts against what these folks have joined government to do.”
‘I’ve Done Big Damage’
Mr. Trump first embraced the phrase “deep state” in June 2017 when he retweeted a post from Sean Hannity of Fox News and then used it himself for the first time on Twitter in November of that year, according to Bill Frischling of Factba.se, a service that analyzes data on Mr. Trump’s presidency.
根据分析特朗普总统任内数据的服务机构Factba.se的比尔·弗瑞斯克林(Bill Frischling)的说法，特朗普在2017年6月转发了福克斯新闻(Fox News)的肖恩·汉尼提(Sean Hannity)的一条推文时首次认可了“深层政府“这个词，并在同年11月第一次在Twitter上自行使用了这个词。
Mr. Trump began using the term in speeches and media appearances in August 2018 at a Republican dinner in October, but he has turned to it increasingly as time has passed. He has referred to a deep state 23 times so far this year, twice as often as last year.
At the Young Black Leadership Summit this month, he railed against Democrats and “their deep-state cronies” who are “colluding in their effort to overturn the presidential election.” He brought up the “deep state, whatever you want to call them” again during a trade-pact signing ceremony. At a Louisiana rally, he denounced “the unholy alliance” of Democrats, the media and “deep state bureaucrats.”
在本月举行的青年黑人领袖峰会(Young Black Leadership Summit)上，他痛斥民主党人和“他们在深层政府里的死党“，正在“串通一气搞垮总统选举。“在一次贸易协定签署仪式上，他再次提到了“深层政府，或是别的什么称呼“。在路易斯安那州的一次集会上，他谴责民主党、媒体和“深层政府的官僚“之间的“邪恶联盟“。
In an interview with his former aide Sebastian Gorka, conducted before the impeachment conflict but published in The Daily Caller this month, Mr. Trump described his war with the deep state as fundamental to his presidency.
在弹劾冲突之前，特朗普接受了他的前助手塞巴斯蒂安·戈尔卡(Sebastian Gorka)的采访，然而该访谈直到本月才发表在The Daily Caller上，特朗普在访谈中称，他与深层政府之间的斗争对他的总统任期来说至关重要。
“If it all works out, I will consider it one of the greatest things I’ve done,” Mr. Trump said. “I think with the destruction of the deep state, certainly I’ve done big damage,” he added. “They’ve come after me in so many different ways; it’s been such a disgrace. But I think it’ll be one of my great achievements.”
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