Before the discovery of the American continents by Europeans in the fifteenth century, there was an interesting expedition. Late in the tenth century, Eric the Red, a Norwegian, discovered Greenland and planned a colony there. Shortly afterward, a Norwegian ship bound for Greenland lost its way and landed on a coast after nine days' sail to the south. In the year 1000, Leif the Lucky, a son of Eric, explored this region. He named it Vinland. It is assumed that what he found was the coast of Newfoundland. The Norwegian sailors tried a few years later to start a colony there, but the project was abandoned because of the unfriendliness of the natives. Even though these efforts failed, it is amazing that the landings were at such an early date.
十五世纪欧洲人发现美洲大陆之前，就有一次很有趣的探险。十世纪末，一位名叫红发艾瑞克的挪威人发现了格陵兰，并计划在该地建立殖民地。没多久，一艘驶往格陵兰的挪威籍船只迷失了方向，在往南行驶九天后才登陆。公元 1000 年，艾瑞克的儿子，名叫幸运小子莱夫，发现了这个区域。他将它命名为纹兰。据推断他发现的地方是纽芬兰的海岸。几年之后，挪威水手想要在那个地方建立殖民地，但因为原住民很不友善，这个计划被放弃了。虽然这些努力失败了，但令人惊讶的是登陆之举居然发生在这么早的年代。
1. 介绍 late 及 lately 的用法：
a. late 可作形容词，表 ''迟到的''，''接近末期的'' 或 ''已故的''。请参看下例：
Peter was fired because he was often late for work.
I'll meet you sometime in the late afternoon.
Even today, the late president is still highly respected by his fellow countrymen.
b. late 亦可作副词，表 ''很晚地''，多置句尾，修饰句中动词。请参看下例：
John was punished by his teacher this morning because he cameto school late.
Many young people today choose to marry late.
c. lately 是副词，与 recently 同义，均表 ''最近''，修饰动词，多出现在现在完成时或现在完成进行时的句构中。请参看下例：
Mr. Lee has been quite busy lately.
= Mr. Lee has been quite busy recently.
= Mr. Lee has been quite busy of late.
2. 由上得知，本课第二句句首的 Late 是副词，修饰之后做副词用的介词短语 in the fifteenth century（十五世纪末），Late 不可用 Lately 取代。
3. 前几课我曾提及副词 shortly（不久）多与 before 或 after 并用，如下例：
Shortly after I got back home, it began to pour.
An earthquake took place shortly before I went out.
注意：shortly 亦可与副词 afterward (s) 并用，形成下列固定搭配的副词短语：
shortly afterwards 之后没多久，不久之后
John met Jane got acquainted only two months ago. Shortly afterwards, they got married.
Shortly afterward (s), a Norwegian ship which was bound for Greenland lost its way...