域外动态||英国开放银行实施实体(OBIE)发布报告《开放银行业务:准备“升空”》

原标题:域外动态||英国开放银行实施实体(OBIE)发布报告《开放银行业务:准备“升空”》

编者按:2019年7月16日,英国开放银行实施实体(OBIE)发布了一份委托Fingleton和ODI编撰的报告,该报告审查了开放银行业务的目的、实施进展和发展潜力。题为《开放银行业务:准备“升空”》的报告回顾了开放银行业务已取得的进展、其或将成为数字经济基石的潜力,并就如何进一步发展开放银行业务提出了详细的建议。

* 英国开放银行实施实体(Open Banking Implementation Entity,简称OBIE)是英国竞争及市场管理局(CMA)于2016年成立的公司,旨在提供开放式银行业务,提升银行业竞争力,其交易名称是Open Banking Limited。

该报告承认了建立开放式银行业务的坚实基础,指明英国在发展开放银行业务中的全球性领导地位,并指出英国提出的开放银行业务标准受各国广泛采纳。该报告进一步载明,即使银行业尚未完成开放银行业务的搭建,其已然开创了数字创新生态系统,促进银行业竞争。报告强调,开放式银行业务将出于消费者和小企业的利益,为其提供大量的潜力和机会。

报告确定了开放银行业务的一些关键性优先事项和建议,包括:支付水平及退款功能的改善、高级应用程序编程接口(API)的开发以及提高对消费者同意的保护。除此之外,该报告对英国商务能源与产业战略部(BEIS)近日出具的报告、弗曼评论、智能数据评论等新近报告作出了回应。显然,开放银行平台及其基础设施具有可扩展性,可以拓展至其他行业领域和地区,尤其在创建开放金融生态系统的过程中。

本文摘取并翻译报告的摘要部分,欲获取报告全文,请文末原文链接。

报告目录

1.开放银行业务是一项开创性的举措,旨在增加英国银行业市场的竞争力和创新性,这是为消费者利益,利用科技重新平衡市场力量的第一次重大尝试。其目标是允许银行客户与第三方安全地共享数据,以促使大量企业参与竞争,为银行客户提供更优质的金融服务、更多的选择和更低的价格。英国已被公认为该领域的全球性领导者,并有可能将开放银行业务发展为英国数字经济的基石。

1. Open Banking is a pioneering initiative designed to increase competition and innovation in the UK’s banking market. It is the first significant attempt to use technology to rebalance markets in favour of consumers. Its objective is to allow bank customers to securely share their data with third parties so a broad range of businesses can compete to provide bank customers with better financial services, more choice and lower prices. The UK is already recognised as the global leader in this space and has the potential to develop Open Banking into a cornerstone of the UK’s digital economy.

2.在对英国银行业竞争进行调查后,英国竞争及市场管理局(CMA)在其2017年颁布的零售银行市场调查令中授权开展开放银行业务。英国竞争及市场管理局(CMA)希望该业务能够刺激整个金融领域的创新,实现复杂的零售银行产品的“分拆”(特别是个人和企业经常账户),并最终带来更加激烈的整体竞争。

2. Open Banking was mandated by the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) in its Retail Banking Market Investigation Order 2017 (the CMA Order) following its investigation into competition in UK banking. The CMA expects it to stimulate innovation across the financial sector, to enable the “unbundling” of complex retail banking products (in particular personal and business current accounts), and to ultimately lead to greater competition overall.

3.开放银行业务希望消费者和企业能够自主控制数据,并帮助他们获得更高的透支、储蓄、信用卡和抵押贷款利率,在兑换外币时更轻松地节省资金,并帮助信用额度较低的人获取信贷。通过提供使用信用卡和借记卡的替代品,其可以帮助商家降低接受付款的成本。并且届时其还能让用户更轻松地、以更优惠的价格进行能源、电信和保险等其他行业的交易。

3. Giving consumers and businesses control over their data, it is hoped, will help them access better rates on overdrafts, savings, credit cards and mortgages, top up savings more easily, save money on foreign exchange, and help those with thin credit files get access to credit. It could help merchants to reduce the cost of accepting payments, by providing an alternative to credit and debit cards. And in time it may also allow customers to easily access better deals in other sectors like energy, telecoms and insurance.

4. 2018年初,开放银行业务开始推广实施,并将于2019年9月完成推广。本文受开放银行实施实体(OBIE)委托,回顾了开放银行业务第一年推广实施的成果,并就如何加强开放银行业对竞争的影响及提升其对用户的价值两方面提出建议。本文对第三方提供商(TPPs)、银行、消费者群体和开放银行实施实体(OBIE)的代表进行了结构化的访谈,基于此而得出结论。

4. The initial phase of Open Banking implementation began in early 2018 and will finish in September 2019. This review was commissioned by the Open Banking Implementation Entity (the OBIE) to examine the first year of Open Banking’s rollout, and recommend how to strengthen Open Banking’s impact on competition and value to users. Our conclusions are based on structured interviews with representatives of third party providers (TPPs), banks, consumer groups and the OBIE itself.

5.现在评估诸如开放银行此类重大举措的影响还为时过早,尤其因为各银行尚未完全投入实施。即便如此,实施的基础已成功搭建,特别是应用程序编程接口(API)标准和信任框架,其受到了本文受访者的广泛赞誉,其他许多国家也正沿用上述标准作为其开放银行项目的蓝图。

5. It is too early to assess the impact of a major initiative like Open Banking, not least because the banks have not yet fully completed implementation. Nonetheless the foundations have been established successfully, in particular the API standards and trust framework, and these were widely praised by our interviewees. Many other countries are using these standards as a blueprint for their own Open Banking projects.

各主要国家发展开放银行业务的时间线

6.从一开始,开放银行实施实体(OBIE)采用了“最小可行性产品”的方法。这意味着使应用程序编程接口(API)尽早生效,以便根据用户反馈学习和修正。需要重新制作的一个关键领域是用户体验。该项目最初是针对银行设计的,因此省略了不必要的冗长和繁琐过程。该标准现在包含了全面的用户体验要求,在撰写本文时正投入实施。初步迹象表明,用户转换率已翻了一番。

6. From the outset the OBIE has adopted a “minimum viable product” approach. This means that the APIs were made live asearly as possible to allow learning and modifications based on user feedback. One crucial area requiring rework was the user experience. This was initially bank designed and unnecessarily lengthy and cumbersome. The standards now incorporate comprehensive user experience requirements and are being implemented at the time of writing. Early indications are user conversion rates have doubled.

7.然而,开放银行实施实体(OBIE)在开放银行业务的设计方面并不具备完全的自主权,其必须遵循欧盟的支付服务指令2(PSD2)。在本文的许多受访者看来,支付服务指令2(PSD2)的现存缺陷可能会阻碍采用开放银行业务。因此,英国实施开放式银行业务还尚需解决一些问题。其中最重要的是:

7. The OBIE does not, however, have complete discretion in its design of Open Banking. It has to fit within the EU’s Second Payment Services Directive (PSD2). In the view of many of our interviewees, the shortcomings of PSD2 will likely now hold back the adoption of Open Banking. As a result, there are some gaps emerging in the UK’s implementation of Open Banking that need to be addressed. The most important of these are:

a.改善支付水平;

b.改善对用户同意的保护;

c.将开放银行拓展为开放金融;和

d.开发高级应用程序编程接口(API)。

a. Improving payments capabilities;

b. Improving consent protections for customers;

c. Expanding Open Banking into Open Finance;and

d. Developing Premium APIs.

开放银行的主要资产和服务

8.提高支付能力:一些第三方提供商(TPPs)提供了初步反馈:与支付服务指令2(PSD2)完全一致的开放银行支付高级应用程序编程接口(APIs)缺少了一些功能。其中一项是对在线商家而言十分关键的退款功能,另一项是用户无法预先同意向商家付款,例如用于订阅服务或自动清算帐户。目前,用户必须手动授权每笔付款。该问题可以通过使开放式银行强制要求“可变的循环支付”解决,这对于商家来说更优惠,且对于那些目前不得不将其卡片信息交给商家保存的用户来说更安全。

8. Improving payments capabilities: The initial reaction from some TPPs is that the Open Banking’s payments APIs, which are fully aligned to PSD2, miss some functionality. One of these is the absence of refund functionality, which is a critical feature for online merchants. Another is the inability for customers to pre-approve payments to a merchant, e.g. for subion services or to automate sweeping between accounts. Currently customers have to manually authorise every payment. This could be solved if Open Banking were able to mandate “variable recurring payments” which would be cheaper for merchants and more secure for customers who currently have to hand over their card details to merchants to hold on file.

9.改善对用户同意的保护:支付服务指令2(PSD2)下的现有授权和同意规则提供了许多消费者保护,但有些领域仍有待改进。本文建议在现有标准中增加三项元素,以进一步搭建消费者信任:

a.为确保用户数据不被用于未经用户同意的目的,我们推荐“用户同意编码”。这意味着将用户同意编码并连接数据。这将使数据处理者、审计员和监管机构清楚了解用户对于使用他们数据的意向;

b.为确保用户在终止服务后保持对其数据的控制,我们建议不仅沿用当前做法,撤销正在进行的连接,同时自动删除已经共享的数据;

c.为确保用户服务的连续性,我们建议使用第三方提供商(TPP)的端口重新认证。这将允许用户向第三方提供商(TPPs)提供持续同意访问其数据的授权,而无需重新访问其银行网站或应用程序。目前,用户每90天都必须通过他们的银行重新认证每个第三方提供商(TPP),是不必要的麻烦。

9. Improving consent protections for customers: The existing authorisation and consent rules under PSD2 provide many consumer protections, but there may be some areas that could be improved. We suggest adding three elements to the existing standards to further build consumer trust:

a. In order to ensure customer data is not used for purposes that the customer did not consent to, we recommend “consent codification”. This would mean codifying the customer’s consent and attaching it to the data. This would make it clear to data processors, auditors and regulators how the customer intended their data to be used.

b. In order to ensure that customers retain control of their data after they terminate a service, we recommend not just revoking ongoing access, as is currently the case, but also automatically deleting data that has already been shared.

c. In order to ensure continuity of service for customers, we recommend TPP-side reauthentication. This would allow users to provide TPPs with continued consent to access their data without having to revisit their bank’s website or app. Currently, consumers are forced to reauthenticate with each TPP through their bank every 90 days, which is an unnecessary inconvenience.

维持消费者安全和信任的基础原则

10.将开放银行拓展为开放金融:英国竞争及市场管理局(CMA)的决议和支付服务指令2(PSD2)仅适用于当前账户和其他支付账户。这忽略了许多重要的金融产品,如现金储蓄账户、抵押贷款、养老金和保险。开放银行高级应用程序编程接口(APIs)有限的工作重点限制了其推动金融领域更广泛竞争的潜力,例如帮助客户货比三家,以获取更优惠的储蓄账户利率或更便宜的抵押贷款。将开放银行业务扩展到其他金融产品将推动更激烈的竞争和更有利于消费者的结果。目前,用户访问此信息的唯一机制是通过屏幕抓取(Screen Scraping),这是不稳定和不安全的。英国金融行为监管局(FCA)计划立即就开放金融业务进行商议。

10. Expanding Open Banking into Open Finance: The CMA Order and PSD2 only apply to current accounts and other payments accounts. This omits many important financial products, such as cash savings accounts, mortgages, pensions and insurance. The narrow focus of the Open Banking APIs limits their potential to drive wider competition in the financial sector, for example by helping customers shop around for better interest rates on savings accounts or cheaper mortgages. Extending Open Banking to these other financial products would drive more competition and better consumer outcomes. Currently the only mechanism for customers to access this information is via screen scraping, which is unstable and insecure. The FCA is planning to consult on Open Finance imminently.

CMA的决议和支付服务指令2(PSD2)的范围

11. 开发高级应用程序编程接口(APIs):本文推荐增加的一些的功能,最好由银行自愿提供,并由与第三方签订的合同约束的高级应用程序编程接口(APIs)来实现。开放银行实施实体(OBIE)计划创建位于强制性“监管性应用程序编程接口(APIs)”之上的“高级应用程序编程接口(APIs)”,其将为银行提供商业性激励,以驱动发展开放银行生态系统,并提高其应用程序编程接口(APIs)的性能。

11. Development of Premium APIs: Some of the increased functionality that we recommend may be best delivered by APIs that banks provide voluntarily and under contract with third parties. The OBIE is planning to create “Premium APIs” that sit above the mandatory “Regulatory APIs”. These should provide a commercial incentive for banks to grow the Open Banking ecosystem and improve the performance of their APIs.

12. 基于开放银行业务的成功,有很多机遇有待探寻,以创建一个有利于消费者和小企业的数字经济。其他几个行业领域正在接近其各自的“开放银行时刻”,使客户得以控制他们的数据,进而驱动竞争与创新。在能源领域,如果以这种方式获取智能电表数据,数据交换将更简便,用户也能从更优惠的资费和非高峰能源定价中轻松获益。而养老金则是消费者面临着的另一个复杂但重要的领域,基于实际客户数据的定制化咨询服务可以提高用户参与度,带来有利于消费者的结果。与开放银行业务的某方面整合可以帮助这些行业更快地制定行业标准,从开放银行业务的成败中汲取教训,并促进推广采纳。

12. There are many opportunities to build onthe success of Open Banking to help create a digital economy that works for consumers and small business. Several other sectors are approaching their “Open Banking moment” where customers take control of their data to drive competition and innovation. In the energy sector, if smart meter data was accessible in this way it may make switching easier and enable customers to easily take advantage of cheaper tariffs and off-peak energy pricing. Pensions is another sector where consumers face complex but important choices, and where tailored advisory services based on actual customer data could improve engagement and consumer outcomes. Some integration with Open Banking may help these sectors to develop their own standards more quickly, learning from Open Banking’s successes and mistakes, and help drive adoption.

13.另一项机遇在于数字身份领域。开放银行业务不提供数字身份服务,但它可以通过两种重要方式来支持数字身份措施。首先,它创建了一种标准化且无处不在的认证机制,使得消费者无论在何处存储,都可以使用该机制来访问其数字身份。其次,交易数据可以成为创建用户数字身份的有效输入。

13. Another opportunity lies in the area of digital identity. Open Banking does not provide digital identity but it can support digital identity initiatives in two important ways. Firstly, it created a standardised and ubiquitous authentication mechanism that consumers can use to access their digital identity regardless of where it is stored. Secondly, transaction data can be a helpful input into the creation of a user’s digital identity.

14.截至目前,开放银行业务已取得了相当大的成果,并使英国处于该行业的世界领先地位。然而,搭建更多重要功能的工作有待完成,以确保其被主流推广采纳。值得一提的是,支付服务指令2(PSD2)现在被视为阻碍开放银行业务的举措。我们建议政府审查开放银行业务的监管基础,以促使开放银行业务的好处可以更广泛地覆盖银行客户和英国公民。英国金融行为监管局(FCA)的开放金融项目、弗曼报告提出的数字市场部门动议以及商务能源与产业战略部(BEIS)的智能数据审查可能成为实现上述目标的工具。

14. A significant amount has been achieved so far and places the UK in a world-leading position. Nevertheless, more workis required to build out important pieces of functionality to ensure mainstream adoption. PSD2 in particular is now seen as holding back Open Banking. We recommend the government reviews Open Banking’s regulatory underpinning so that the benefits of Open Banking can flow to bank customers and UK citizens more widely. The FCA’s Open Finance project, the Furman Review’s proposal for adigital markets unit, and BEIS’s Smart Data Review may be vehicles through which this could be achieved.

15.开放银行业务旨在推动建立数字创新生态系统,其好处将在未来几年,而非寥寥数月内显现出来。现在的挑战是在已经奠定的基础之上,引入被支付服务指令2(PSD2)忽略的其他功能,并在不同行业领域发挥其功能,以帮助搭建更好地服务于消费者和小企业的市场。

15. Open Banking is intended to kick-start an ecosystem of digital innovation and its benefits will become apparent in the coming years, not months. The challenge now is to build upon the foundations that have been laid, introduce additional functionality that has been overlooked by PSD2, and build out its capabilities across different sectors to help create markets that better serve consumers and small businesses.

国际视角看开放银行

翻译:邱越

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