如何快准狠做对GMAT阅读主旨&细节&推断题?

原标题:如何快准狠做对GMAT阅读主旨&细节&推断题?

关于GMAT的阅读,很多同学反映说,文章是读的懂的,但是题不会做。也有的同学说文章读的特别慢,时间总是不够用。不管上述两种情况你遇到了哪一种,作为一名GMAT资深老师,还是能马上知道你的症结所在。

下面我们拿一篇文章练练手,顺便看看你的做题步骤或者思路有没有问题。

本文将详细讲解主旨题、细节题、推断题

比如我们看到了下面这篇文章(为了简单展示,就来一篇短文章吧):

不想读原文,只想学习做题思路的话可跳到后面看

More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily destroy only unwanted species, biocontrol agents (such as insects, fungi, and viruses) eat, infect, or parasitize targeted plant or animal pests. However, biocontrol agents can negatively affect nontarget species by, for example, competing with them for resources: a biocontrol agent might reduce the benefits conferred by a desirable animal species by consuming a plant on which the animal prefers to lay its eggs. Another example of indirect negative consequences occurred in England when a virus introduced to control rabbits reduced the amount of open ground (because large rabbit populations reduce the ground cover), in turn reducing underground ant nests and triggering the extinction of a blue butterfly that had depended on the nests to shelter its offspring. The paucity of known extinctions or disruptions resulting from indirect interactions may reflect not the infrequency of such mishaps but rather the failure to look for or to detect them: most organisms likely to be adversely affected by indirect interactions are of little or no known commercial value and the events linking a biocontrol agent with an adverse effect are often unclear. Moreover, determining the potential risks of biocontrol agents before they are used is difficult, especially when a nonnative agent is introduced, because, unlike a chemical pesticide, a biocontrol agent may adapt in unpredictable ways so that it can feed on or otherwise harm new hosts.

第一步,就是要先对文章做结构理解,记住,一定要先读文章,然后做题:

用不同颜色分出区域更好看明白:

More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily destroy only unwanted species, biocontrol agents (such as insects, fungi, and viruses) eat, infect, or parasitize targeted plant or animal pests. However, biocontrol agents can negatively affect nontarget species by, for example, competing with them for resources: a biocontrol agent might reduce the benefits conferred by a desirable animal species by consuming a plant on which the animal prefers to lay its eggs. Another example of indirect negative consequences occurredin England when a virus introduced to control rabbits reduced the amount of open ground (because large rabbit populations reduce the ground cover), in turn reducing underground ant nests and triggering the extinction of a blue butterfly that had depended on the nests to shelter its offspring. The paucity of known extinctions or disruptions resulting from indirect interactions may reflect not the infrequency of such mishaps but rather the failure to look for or to detect them: most organisms likely to be adversely affected by indirect interactions are of little or no known commercial value and the events linking a biocontrol agent with an adverse effect are often unclear. Moreover, determining the potential risks of biocontrol agents before they are used is difficult, especially when a nonnative agent is introduced, because, unlike a chemical pesticide, a biocontrol agent may adapt in unpredictable ways so that it can feed on or otherwise harm new hosts.

从上面可以把信息精简出来:

biocontrol agents比most chemical pesticides更selective因为针对性强,但也会负面影响非目标对象。一个例子是啥啥啥,另一个例子是啥啥啥。对这种间接影响了解的少反应了不是啥,而是找不到它们。并且,在使用biocontrol agents之前确定潜在风险是很难的,因为,不像chemical pesticide,啥啥啥。

然后就等着问题怎么提问吧!

主旨题 The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) explaining why until recently scientists failed to recognize the risks presented by biocontrol agents

(B) emphasizing that biocontrol agents and chemical pesticides have more similarities than differences

(C) suggesting that only certain biocontrol agents should be used to control plant or animal pests

(D) arguing that biocontrol agents involve risks, some of which may not be readily discerned

(E) suggesting that mishaps involving biocontrol agents are relatively commonplace

这是主旨题,要用一句话概括作者在干啥。

那么根据我们精简过的内容,自己先来概括:

作者在说这个方法有负面的后果,并且很难找到或预测之类。

然后再排除选项,不是全篇都在解释为啥一直没认识到潜在风险,排除A,不是说biocontrol agents和chemical pesticides共同点的,排除B,不是强调只有特定的biocontrol agents才能用来干啥啥啥,排除C,说biocontrol agents有风险,有些还不能察觉,可能是D,不是说这些mishaps是很普遍的,这个太细节,不够概括全文。所以选D.

细节题 According to the passage, which of the following is a concern that arises with biocontrol agents but not with chemical pesticides?

(A) Biocontrol agents are likely to destroy desirable species as well as undesirable ones.

(B) Biocontrol agents are likely to have indirect as well as direct adverse effects on nontarget species.

(C) Biocontrol agents may change in unforeseen ways and thus be able to damage new hosts.

(D) Biocontrol agents may be ineffective in destroying targeted species.

(E) Biocontrol agents may be effective for only a short period of time.

这是细节题,要先理解问题,问的是一个concern,类似于担心,是关于biocontrol agents而不是chemical pesticides的,应该是想问两者不同点的,而且是对biocontrol agents的concern,所以定位要先去找文中两者的对比关系,比如第一句和最后一句,但是第一句表显不出对biocontrol agents的concern,所以定位到最后一句,细节题最主要的就是对应原文,可以直接确定答案C。

推断题 The passage suggests which of the following about the blue butterfly mentioned in the highlighted text?

(A) The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining a rabbit population of a particular size.

(B) The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining large amounts of vegetation in its habitat.

(C) The blue butterfly's survival was threatened when the ants began preying on its offspring.

(D) The blue butterfly was infected by the virus that had been intended to control rabbit populations.

(E) The blue butterfly was adversely affected by a biocontrol agent that competed with it for resources.

这是推断题,也是这篇最难的一题,所以要最认真的理解和排除选项。

根据问题about the blue butterfly可以定位到文章被我们第一遍跳过的细节内容上。认真理解原句:

Another example of indirect negative consequences occurred in England when a virus introduced to control rabbits reduced the amount of open ground (because large rabbit populations reduce the ground cover), in turn reducing underground ant nests and triggering the extinction of a blue butterfly that had depended on the nests to shelter its offspring.

意思大概说的是,引入病毒来减少兔子,结果减少了open ground,然后连锁反应减少了underground ant nests,再引发了the extinction of a blue butterfly。这是一条事物链。

推断题比较难,不仅考对原文的理解,还要对选项进行排除。

A说blue butterfly's survival间接依赖于维持兔子的数量。好像两者之间确实有这个关系,留下。

B说blue butterfly's survival间接依赖于维持大量的植被。字面意思上没有提到植被,但是深入理解的话,植被其实是ground cover,open ground是空地,所以兔子多了植被会少,最终导致了blue butterfly的灭绝。所以关系反了。排除。

C说blue butterfly's survival被ants威胁,没提到,直接排除。

D说blue butterfly被病毒感染,直接排除,病毒至提到会杀死兔子。

E说blue butterfly被与它竞争资源的biocontrol agent反过来影响到了。没提到资源竞争,直接排除。

所以选A。这题的干扰项是D,因为很多同学会把infected看成affected。

这是一篇中等难度的文章,看看自己读文章和做题的思路,能不能发现一些自己阅读方面的问题呢?

本文作者

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